PDF Version of CyanoNews Volume 9 Number 1


                   Volume 9 Number 1        January 1993


CYANONEWS - a newsletter intended to provide cyanobacteriologists with a

     forum for rapid informal communication, unavailable through journals.

     Everything you read in this newsletter is contributed by readers like

     yourself. Published occasionally, about three times per year.

SUBSCRIPTIONS - $10 or equivalent/year for a hard copy. Free by E-Mail. 

CONTRIBUTIONS - Expected every couple of years: a new result, an upcoming

     meeting or a summary of a past meeting, a post-doctoral opening, a new

     publication, a request for strains, a change of life... something. See

     last page for addresses you can send news to.


     name is capitalized in the news item. Addresses are given at the end of

     the issue. Also, a Directory of Cyanobacteriologists is distributed every

     two years. 


COPYRIGHT - This newsletter is not copyrighted and no rights are reserved.

     You are encouraged to reproduce or to transmit any part of this

     publication by whatever means at your disposal, no permission required.




  * Meetings

  * Announcements

  * Positions available 


  * Genes encoding amino acid transporter, cyanoglobin found in nif region

  * Light-dependent movement isolates cyanobacteria

  * Phylogenetic inferences concerning prochlorophytes questioned

  * Immobilizing recalcitrant strain in calcium alginate

  * Key nitrogen regulator in Anabaena found twice?





There has been a six month interval between this issue and the last,

reflecting the difficulty in resuming normal operations in a new locale.

Future issues should appear every four months or so, as previously. For many

readers of this newsletter there has been a much longer interval since the

last time they contributed NEWS! Please see the paragraph entitled

"Contributions", at the top of the page! 


Jun 2, at Asilomar State Park, California, U.S.A. Meals, lodging, and

registration is U.S.$203. 

     Contact: Arthur Grossman, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Dept. of

     Plant Biology, 290 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305-1297 U.S.A. (Tel) 415-

     325-1521. (Fax) 415-325-6857. (E-Mail) w5.c38@Stanford.Bitnet

A WORKSHOP devoted to "Major ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEXES in photosynthesis

and respiration - structure & function, similarities & interactions" will be

held in Gmunden, Austria, Aug 1-5, 1993. It is scheduled as a satellite

meeting to the 11th International Biophysics Congress in Budapest Jul 25-30,

1993. The satellite meeting will focus on several topics of interest to

prokaryotic and eukaryotic photosynthesis and respiration. The registration

fee of �.S. 4,952 includes meals and accommodations.  

     Contact: G.A. Peschek, Institut f�r Physikalische Chemie der Universit�t

     Wien, A-1090 Wien, W�hringer Str. 42, Austria. (Tel) 011-43-1-343616

     (FAX) 011-43-1-3104597. 

In the midst of the annual meeting of the Phycological Society of America

will be a COLLOQUIUM ON ALGAL BIOTECHNOLOGY, Aug 3-4, 1993, Iowa State

University, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A. The focus of the meeting will be the future

of microalgal biotechnology and emerging technologies. The three sections of

the colloquium will highlight: (1) industrial use of algae, (2) the search

for natural products and bioactive compounds, and (3) molecular techniques

for manipulating cyanobacteria, Chlamydomonas, and other algae. It is hoped

the colloquium will provide a means by which those applying algal

biotechnology and those developing new techniques can cross fertilize. 

     Contact: Tom Allnutt, Martek Biosciences, 6480 Dobbin Road, Columbia, MD

     21405 U.S.A. (Tel) 410-740-0081. (Fax) 410-740-2985


held in New Delhi, Jan 29-31, 1990 is now available. The book of 547 pages

collects full sized articles on four subjects: physiology and biochemistry,

molecular biology and biotechnology, agricultural and industrial uses, and

environmental biology. The cost of the proceedings is $20 (U.S.) plus $6

postage as registered air mail. 

     Contact: B.D. Kaushik, National Facility for Blue-Green Algal Collection,

     Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA.

                                              POSITIONS AVAILABLE

POSITION: Post-doc

CONTACT: Jim Golden, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College

     Station, TX 77843-3258 U.S.A. (Tel) 409-845-9823. (FAX) 409-845-2891.

     (E-mail) jgolden@bio.tamu.edu 

RESEARCH: Genetics and molecular biology of heterocyst differentiation and

     nitrogen fixation.

SUPPORT: Only one year of support can be guaranteed. Applicants who are

     prepared to apply for their own postdoc fellowship will be receive

     greatest attention.

SUBMIT: C.V., a brief description of research interests, names of at least

     three references (include their addresses, telephone, fax, and E-mail


START: Immediately


POSITION: Post-doc

CONTACT: Carl Johnson, Dept. of Biology, Box 1812-B, Vanderbilt University,

     Nashville, TN  37235 U.S.A. (E-Mail) JohnsonC@Vuctrvax.Bitnet

RESEARCH: Study the cell/molecular basis of circadian rhythmicity in

     cyanobacteria and/or Chlamydomonas. The project involves (1) identifying

     and characterizing rhythmically-expressed genes, and (2) discovering and

     characterizing mutants of the circadian clock. 

REQUIREMENTS: Experience with molecular genetic techniques, esp. subtractive

     hybridization, mutagenesis, DNA sequencing, PCR, etc. is highly desirable.

SALARY: Approximately $20,000 (U.S.) for at least two years of support.

SUBMIT: Statement of experience and goals, resume, names, addresses, phone

     numbers of three references. 

START: June 1, 1993.


POSITION: Post-doc

CONTACT: Avigad Vonshak or Sammy Boussiba, The Microalgal Biotechnology

     Laboratory, The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion

     University, Sede-Boker Campus 84990, Israel. (Tel) 57-565825. (Fax)

     57-555058. (E-Mail) Avigad@Bgumail.Bgu.Ac.IL

RESEARCH: Study the interaction between carotenogenesis, photosynthesis and

     respiration in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. H. pluvialis, a

     green biflagellate unicellular alga can be induced to accumulate massive

     amounts of astaxanthin. This accumulation is associated with a

     developmental change in the alga to form a red large spore.

PERTINENT ARTICLE: Plant & Cell Physiol 32: 1077-82, 1991 

REQUIREMENTS: Qualified persons with background in either algal physiology,

     photosynthesis, protein biochemistry, are encouraged to apply.

SUBMIT: Three letters of references should be mailed directly to A.V. or S.B.

SALARY: Will include a monthly payment of $1,000 and cost of air-fare ticket.

START: As soon as possible


POSITION: Post-doc

CONTACT: F. Robert Tabita, Dept. Microbiology, The Ohio State University,

     484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1192 U.S.A. (FAX) 614-292-6337.

     (E-Mail) rtabita@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu

RESEARCH: Study the structure, function, assembly, and regulation of Rubisco

     and its interaction with chaperonin proteins and other proteins that

     influence Rubisco function. Both biochemical and molecular approaches are

     employed, and a significant component of the work will entail the design

     and expression of mutant forms of recombinant enzyme. 

PERTINENT ARTICLES: Biochem (1992) 31:519-525; Biochem (1992) 31:5553-5560;

     Biochem (1991) 30:8181-8186; J Bacteriol (1991) 173:2099-2108; J Bacteriol

     (1992) 174:3607-3611

SUBMIT: Updated CV, names of three references.


POSITION: Anticipated tenure-track position. Exceptional candidates will be

     considered for appointment at the Associate Professor level.

CONTACT: Richard Crain, Chair, Biochemistry Search Committee, The University

     of Connecticut, U-125, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Storrs,

     CT 06269-3125 U.S.A. (E-Mail: Crain@UConnVm.UConn.Edu)

REQUIREMENTS: Significant postdoctoral experience. Expected to establish a

     strong, extramurally-funded research program in the general area of

     protein science. Applicants who combine biochemical and physical

     biochemical approaches are of particular interest.  

SUBMIT: C.V., reprints or preprints of major publications, statement

     summarizing research accomplishments and future plans, at least three

     letters of recommendation.

DEADLINE: Review of applications will begin February 15, 1993.

START: September 1, 1993



     MARTIN MULLIGAN informs us of provocative results stemming from his recent

sequencing of the region upstream of nifB in Anabaena PCC 7120. The sequenced

region lies at the boundary of a large segment of DNA containing genes

involved in nitrogenase synthesis and maturation. Two or possibly three open

reading frames (ORFs) were found oriented away from nifB. The first ORF is

highly homologous to amino-acid transport proteins, in particular to ArcD

from Pseudomonas and, less so, to a membrane protein recognized by a mouse

retrovirus. ArcD is postulated to be an arginine/ornithine antiport protein,

and the viral receptor is known to transport neutral amino acids. Hydropathy

plots indicate that the ORF codes for an integral membrane protein, as would

be expected for a transporter.

     The location of the ORF near the nif genes might recall to mind

predictions that there should be transport systems between cells along the

filament mediating the transfer of nitrogenous compounds, perhaps induced by

nitrogen deprivation [e.g. Haselkorn R (1978) Annu Rev Plant Physiol 29:319-

344]. Previously described transport systems for basic amino acids in

Anabaena PCC 7120 are not inducible [Herrero A, Flores E (1990) J Biol Chem

265:3931-3935]. M.L. Montesinos, Antonia Herrero, and ENRIQUE FLORES now tell

us that they have characterized two transport systems for neutral amino

acids, also non-inducible, in Anabaena PCC 7120 and in derivatives mutated

in one or both systems. It is of course unclear whether the gene discovered

by Mulligan corresponds to any of these non-inducible systems or to some

presently unknown activity.

     MARTIN MULLIGAN also found in Nostoc MUN 8820a gene encoding a myoglobin-

like protein, called cyanoglobin. Such a gene (glbN) was previously described

in Nostoc commune [Potts et al (1992) Nature 256:1690-1691], but it is not

generally found in heterocystous cyanobacteria. The two genes are similar but

not identical and in each case is located between nifU and nifH. It would be

nice to know if the presence or absence of cyanoglobin in a cyanobacterium

is related to some ecological need, but unfortunately, the history of Nostoc

MUN 8820 is obscure. It was derived from a culture obtained several years

from the G�ttingen culture collection (SAG), labelled Oscillatoria tenuis

1459-4, but the designation is clearly inaccurate. The true source of Nostoc

MUN 8820 is probably lost forever. 



Nola de Chazal and GEOFF SMITH have developed a quick and powerful method for

isolating cyanobacteria (Appl Environ Microbiol (1992) 58:3561-3566). It is

based on the variable light-dependency of movement of cyanobacteria on scored

agar plates or through an agar overlay. They have used this method to isolate

a number of organisms from the hot desert region of Australia and from

tropical Indonesia. Interestingly, many of the organisms isolated in

Indonesia were brown whereas all organisms isolated from the desert area of

Australia were blue-green. Amongst the organisms isolated from Indonesia is

an interesting Synechocystis that is an alkalinophile, rendered uni-algal by

growth in high bicarbonate at pH 10. They have also isolated apparently

endolithic cyanobacteria from shell valves from two shell mounds on the Cape

York peninsula of Australia. The shell valves, when examined microscopically,

showed microborings on the interior surface. Cyanobacteria were found from

all genera, including Synechocystis, Dermocarpa, Xenococcus, Myxosarcina,

Chroococcidiopsis, Pleurocapsa, LPP group B, Anabaena, Nostoc, Scytonema, and

Fischerella. All of these were blue-green.


     As described in the February 1992 issue of CyanoNews, most of the analyses

published so far of sequences from prochlorophytes suggest that they do not

share common ancestry with chloroplasts to the exclusion of cyanobacteria,

i.e., that they do not represent the "chloroplast ancestor". CHRIS HOWE warns

that the results of the analyses should be treated with some caution, because

the data violates an important (although not always explicit) assumption of

phylogenetic inference techniques: that base composition remains constant

over time. This assumption is clearly not valid, as chloroplast genomes have

a higher AT-bias than prochlorophytes and cyanobacteria. A consequence of

this violation is that sequences with similar bias in base composition will

group artificially closely in phylogenetic trees, and sequences with

different bias will be grouped further apart. One might therefore expect

prochlorophytes to be placed further from chloroplasts than actual

evolutionary relationships would dictate. 

     Work done by Howe in collaboration with colleagues in Sydney and elsewhere

[Lockhart PJ et al (1992), J Mol Evol 34:153-162] suggests that this

phenomenon may have misled analysis of the evolutionary position of the

cyanelle of Cyanophora paradoxa. Like chloroplasts, this organelle has a

highly AT-biased genome. Phylogenetic inference groups it with chloroplasts,

unless the least biased codon positions of the least biased genes are used,

in which case it is grouped with cyanobacteria. The apparent paradox points

out that one should check carefully to see if sequence data fits the

assumptions of the analytical techniques before relying on their conclusions.


PAUL P. JACKSON and BRIAN WHITTON were trying to immobilize a strain of

Synechococcus (D562) that was isolated from a mine tailings pond in Missouri,

because of its possible use in removing cadmium from effluents. They found

that a range of cyanobacteria were able to grow immobilized in calcium

alginate beads, but not Synechococcus D562 (wouldn't you know it). They

solved the problem by supplementing sodium alginate with 5 mM KCl before the

addition of the cell suspension and subsequent transfer of the droplets of

this mixture to calcium chloride. It may be that adding KCl works with

Synechococcus D562 because of the relatively high K:Na ratio (1.2 to 1 on a

molar basis) found in water at the site from which the strain was isolated.

Even so, they recommend the use of KCl to anyone having difficulties

immobilizing a cyanobacterium in calcium alginate.


     Two groups, J.E. Frias, I. Luque, A. Merida, Antonia Herrero, and ENRIQUE

FLORES (Universidad de Sevilla) on one hand and T.S. Ramasubramanian, Tai-Fen

Wei, and JIM GOLDEN (Texas A&M University) on the other, appear to have both

cloned a gene from Anabaena PCC 7120 important in mediating the regulation

of genes in response to nitrogen status. The Sevilla group cloned the gene

by its homology to ntcA, a gene from Synechococcus PCC 7942 previously found

to be required for full expression several proteins subject to ammonium

repression [Vega-Palas MA et al (1992) Molec Microbiol 6:1853-1859]. The

Texas A&M group reached the same end from a study of a protein, called BifA

(formerly VF1), found in extracts of vegetative cells of Anabaena PCC 7120

and known to bind to regions upstream from glnA (encoding glutamine

synthetase) and other genes [Chastain CJ et al (1990) J Bacteriol

172:5044-5051]. A clone of the gene encoding BifA was selected by making use

of the ability of BifA to bind in E. coli to the glnA upstream region.

     Both groups sequenced the gene and found it to be about 77% similar in

sequence to ntcA. The proteins deduced from the two genes (and from a third

homologous gene from Synechocystis PCC 6803 sequenced by the Sevilla group)

are all similar to members of a family of regulatory proteins typified by

Crp, a protein of E. coli involved in catabolite repression. Most striking,

the three deduced proteins share identical helix-turn-helix motifs, which

have been implicated in the binding of protein to DNA. Indeed, NtcA, like

BifA, was shown to bind to the regulatory region of glnA. The consensus

binding site of BifA is now known to be TGT(N)9-10ACA, the same as that of Crp

and NifA (a protein that regulates nitrogenase genes in Klebsiella and some

other nitrogen-fixing bacteria).

     If BifA truly regulates the response of Anabaena to nitrogen deprivation,

then mutants defective in bifA (like already known mutants of Synechococcus

defective in ntcA) should show aberrant responses to changes in the source

of nitrogen. Preliminary evidence indicates that bifA mutants, like ntcA

mutants, cannot utilize nitrate as a nitrogen source.



Awramik SM (1992). The Oldest Records of Photosynthesis. Photosynth Res


Blankenship RE (1992). Origin and Early Evolution of Photosynthesis.

     Photosynth Res 33(2):91-111.

Hamana K, Matsuzaki S (1992). Polyamines as a Chemotaxonomic Marker in

     Bacterial Systematics. Crit Rev Microbiol 18(4):261-283.

Ernst A, Sandmann G, Postius C, Brass S, Kenter U, B�ger P (1992).

     Cyanobacterial Picoplankton from Lake Constance. 2. Classification of

     Isolates by Cell Morphology and Pigment Composition. Bot Acta


Dionisiosese ML, Shimada A, Maruyama T, Miyachi S (1993). Carbonic Anhydrase

     Activity of Prochloron Sp Isolated from an Ascidian Host. Arch Microbiol


Vanderstaay GWM, Brouwer A, Baard RL, Vanmourik F, Matthijs HCP (1992).

     Separation of Photosystem I and Photosystem II from the Oxychlorobacterium

     (Prochlorophyte) Prochlorothrix Hollandica and Association of

     Chlorophyll-B Binding Antennae with Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta


                            ECOLOGY and SYMBIOSIS

Turk V, Rehnstam AS, Lundberg E, Hagstrom A (1992). Release of Bacterial DNA

     by Marine Nanoflagellates, an Intermediate Step in Phosphorus

     Regeneration. Appl Environ Microbiol 58(11):3744-3750.

Weller R, Bateson MM, Heimbuch BK, Kopczynski ED, Ward DM (1992).

     Uncultivated Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexus-Like Inhabitants, and

     Spirochete-Like Inhabitants of a Hot Spring Microbial Mat. Appl Environ

     Microbiol 58(12):3964-3969.

Bieleski RL, Lauchli A (1992). Phosphate Uptake, Efflux and Deficiency in the

     Water Fern, Azolla. Plant Cell Environ 15(6):665-673.

Canini A, Bergman B, Civitareale P, Rotilio G, Caiola MG (1992). Localization

     of Iron-Superoxide Dismutase in the Cyanobiont of Azolla filiculoides Lam.

     Protoplasma 169(1-2):1-8.

Forni C, Haegi A, Delgallo M, Caiola MG (1992). Production of Polysaccharides

     by Arthrobacter-Globiformis Associated with Anabaena-Azollae in Azolla

     Leaf Cavity. FEMS Microbiol Lett 93(3):269-274.

Johansson C, Bergman B (1992). Early Events During the Establishment of the

     Gunnera Nostoc Symbiosis. Planta 188(3):403-413.

Klein E, Bar E, Forni C, Malkin S, Telor E (1992). The Application of

     Cryo-SEM Techniques to the Study of the Symbiotic Association in the

     Azolla Leaf Cavity. J Microsc-Oxford 167(Part 3):273-278.

Vaishampayan A, Reddy YR, Singh BD, Singh RM (1992). Reduced Phosphorus

     Requirement of a Mutant Azolla-Anabaena Symbiotic N2-Fixing Complex. J Exp

     Bot 43(251):851-856.

                      TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES

Beatty MF, Jenningswhite C, Avery MA (1992). Stereocontrolled Synthesis of

     (2S, 3S, 8S, 9S, 4E, 6E)-3-Amino- 9-Methoxy-2, 6,

     8-Trimethyl-10-Phenyldeca-4, 6-Dienoic Acid (Adda), the Amino Acid

     Characteristic of Microcystins and Nodularin. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans I


Bruno M, Gucci PMB, Pierdominici E, Sestili P, Ioppolo A, Sechi N, Volterra

     L (1992). Microcystin-Like Toxins in Different Freshwater Species of

     Oscillatoria. Toxicon 30(10):1307-1311.

Carmichael WW (1992). A Review: Cyanobacteria Secondary Metabolites - The

     Cyanotoxins. J Appl Bacteriol 72(6):445-459.

Edwards C, Beattie KA, Scrimgeour CM, Codd GA (1992). Identification of

     Anatoxin-A in Benthic Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) and in Associated

     Dog Poisonings at Loch Insh, Scotland. Toxicon 30(10):1165-1175.

Frankmolle WP, Larsen LK, Caplan FR, Patterson GML, Knubel G, Levine IA,

     Moore RE (1992). Antifungal Cyclic Peptides from the Terrestrial

     Blue-Green Alga Anabaena-Laxa. 1. Isolation and Biological Properties. J

     Antibiot 45(9):1451-1457.

Frankmolle WP, Knubel G, Moore RE, Patterson GML (1992). Antifungal Cyclic

     Peptides from the Terrestrial Blue-Green Alga Anabaena-Laxa. 2. Structures

     of Laxaphycin-A Laxaphycin-B, Laxaphycin-D and Laxaphycin-E. J Antibiot


Henning K, Meyer H, Kraatzwadsack G, Cremer J (1992). Detection of a

     Cytotoxic Substance Produced by the Cyanobacterium Microcystis-Aeruginosa

     Strain PCC 7806 - Isolation and Differentiation from the Peptide Toxin

     Microcystin-LR by Cytotoxicity Assays. Curr Microbiol 25(3):129-134.

Kawai T, Ichinose T, Takeda M, Tomioka N, Endo Y, Yamaguchi K, Shudo K,

     Itai A (1992). Prediction of Ring Conformations of Indolactams - Crystal

     and Solution Structures [teleocidin-B, lyngbyatoxin]. J Org Chem


Kiviranta J, Namikoshi M, Sivonen K, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL

     (1992). Structure Determination and Toxicity of a New Microcystin from

     Microcystis-Aeruginosa Strain-205. Toxicon 30(9):1093-1098.

Martin C, Weckesser J, Ino T, Konig WA (1992). 7-Desmethyl-Microcystin-RR,

     a Hepatotoxin from a Waterbloom of Microcystis-Aeruginosa. Z Naturforsch

     C 47(5-6):335-340.

Moore BS, Ohtani I, Dekoning CB, Moore RE, Carmichael WW (1992). Biosynthesis

     of Anatoxin-a(s) - Origin of the Carbons. Tetrahedron Lett


Namikoshi M, Sivonen K, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Rouhiainen L, Luukkainen R,

     Rinehart (1992). Structures of 3 New Homotyrosine-Containing Microcystins

     and a New Homophenylalanine Variant from Anabaena Sp Strain 66. Chem Res

     Toxicol 5(5):661-666.

Namikoshi M, Sivonen K, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Sun F, Rouhiainen L,

     Luukkainen R, Rinehart KL (1992). 2 New L-Serine Variants of

     Microcystins-LR and Microcystins-RR from Anabaena Sp Strains 202-A1 and

     202-A2. Toxicon 30(11):1457-1464.

Namikoshi M, Sivonen K, Evans WR, Sun F, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL (1992).

     Isolation and Structures of Microcystins from a Cyanobacterial Water Bloom

     (Finland). Toxicon 30(11):1473-1479.

Ohtani I, Moore RE, Runnegar MTC (1992). Cylindrospermopsin - A Potent

     Hepatotoxin from the Blue- Green Alga Cylindrospermopsis-Raciborskii. J

     Am Chem Soc 114(20):7941-7942.

Park A, Moore RE, Patterson GML (1992). Fischerindole-L, a New Isonitrile

     from the Terrestrial Blue-Green Alga Fischerella-Muscicola. Tetrahedron

     Lett 33(23):3257-3260.

Simonin P, Jurgens UJ, Rohmer M (1992). 35-O-�-6-Amino-6-Deoxyglucopyranosyl

     Bacteriohopanetetrol, a Novel Triterpenoid of the Hopane Series from the

     Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC 6714. Tetrahedron Lett


Sivonen K, Namikoshi M, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Sun F, Rouhiainen L,

     Luukkainen R, Rinehart KL (1992). Isolation and Characterization of a

     Variety of Microcystins from 7 Strains of the Cyanobacterial Genus

     Anabaena. Appl Environ Microbiol 58(8):2495-2500.

Sivonen K, Namikoshi M, Evans WR, Fardig M, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL

     (1992). 3 New Microcystins, Cyclic Heptapeptide Hepatotoxins, from Nostoc

     Sp Strain 152. Chem Res Toxicol JUL-5(4):464-469.

Sivonen K, Namikoshi M, Evans WR, Gromov BV, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL

     (1992). Isolation and Structures of 5 Microcystins from a Russian

     Microcystis-Aeruginosa Strain CALU-972. Toxicon 30(11):1481-1485.

Sivonen K, Skulberg OM, Namikoshi M, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL

     (1992). 2 Methyl Ester Derivatives of Microcystins, Cyclic Heptapeptide

     Hepatotoxins, Isolated from Anabaena Flos-Aquae Strain CYA 83/1. Toxicon


Vepritskii AA, Gromov BV, Titova NN, Mamkaeva KA (1991). Production of the

     Antibiotic-Algicide Cyanobacterin LU-2 by the Filamentous Cyanobacterium

     Nostoc Sp. Microbiology-Engl Tr 60(6):675-679.

              TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES (Physiological Effects)

Cook N (1992). The Effect of Cyanobacterial Water Bloom Formation upon

     Conjugational Gene Transfer Between Associated Heterotrophic Bacteria. In:

     Release of Genetically Modified Microorganisms - Regem 263 207-208.

zFalconer IR, Dornbusch M, Moran G, Yeung SK (1992). Effect of the

     Cyanobacterial (Blue-Green Algal) Toxins from Microcystis-Aeruginosa on

     Isolated Enterocytes from the Chicken Small Intestine. Toxicon


Holen I, Gordon PB, Seglen PO (1992). Protein Kinase-Dependent Effects of

     Okadaic Acid on Hepatocytic Autophagy and Cytoskeletal Integrity.

     Biochem J 284:633-636.

Kawai T, Ichinose T, Endo Y, Shudo K, Itai A (1992). Active Conformation of

     a Tumor Promoter, Teleocidin - A Molecular Dynamics Study. J Med Chem


Kondo F, Ikai Y, Oka H, Okumura M, Ishikawa N, Harada K, Matsuura K, Murata

     H, Suzuki M (1992). Formation, Characterization, and Toxicity of the

     Glutathione and Cysteine Conjugates of Toxic Heptapeptide Microcystins.

     Chem Res Toxicol 5(5):591-596.

Mackintosh C (1992). Regulation of Spinach-Leaf Nitrate Reductase by

     Reversible Phosphorylation [microcystin-LR]. Biochim Biophys Acta


Nishiwakimatsushima R, Fujiki H, Harada K, Taylor C, Quinn RJ (1992). The

     Role of Arginine in Interactions of Microcystins with Protein

     Phosphatase-1 and Phosphatase-2A. Bioorg Medicinal Chem Letter


Nishiwakimatsushima R, Ohta T, Nishiwaki S, Suganuma M, Kohyama K, Ishikawa

     T, Carmichael WW, Fujiki H (1992). Liver Tumor Promotion by the

     Cyanobacterial Cyclic Peptide Toxin Microcystin-LR. J Cancer Res Clin

     Oncol 118(6):420-424.

Sepulveda MS, Rojas M, Zambrano F (1992). Inhibitory Effect of a

     Microcystis Sp (Cyanobacteria) Toxin on Development of Preimplantation

     Mouse Embryos. Comp Biochem Physiol [C] 102(3):549-553.

Stafford RG, Mehta M, Kemppainen BW (1992). Comparison of the Partition

     Coefficient and Skin Penetration of a Marine Algal Toxin (Lyngbyatoxin-A).

     Food Chem Toxicol 30(9):795-801.

Suganuma M, Fujiki H, Okabe S, Nishiwaki S, Brautigan D, Ingebritsen TS,

     Rosner MR (1992). Structurally Different Members of the Okadaic Acid Class

     Selectively Inhibit Protein Serine/Threonine But Not Tyrosine Phosphatase

     Activity. Toxicon 30(8):873-878.

Wolniak SM, Larsen PM (1992). Changes in the Metaphase Transit Times and the

     Pattern of Sister Chromatid Separation in Stamen Hair Cells of

     Tradescantia After Treatment with Protein Phosphatase Inhibitors

     [microcystin]. J Cell Sci 102( Part 4):691-715.

                          PHYSIOLOGY and METABOLISM

Dubinin AV, Gerasimenko LM, Venetskaya SL, Gusev MV (1992). Cyanobacterium

     Microcoleus Chthonoplastes Fails to Grow in Pure Culture.

     Microbiology-Engl Tr 61(1):41-46.

Fontes AG, Moreno J, Vargas MA, Rivas J (1992). Dependence on Growth Phase

     and Temperature of the Composition of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium.

     Biotechnol Bioeng 40(6):681-685.

Ghetti F, Checcucci G, Lenci F (1992). Photosensitized Reactions as Primary

     Molecular Events in Photomovements of Microorganisms [Anabaena]. J

     Photochem Photobiol B-Biol 15(3):185-198.

Griffiths AE, Walsby AE, Hayes PK (1992). The Homologies of Gas Vesicle

     Proteins. J Gen Microbiol 138(JUN):1243-1250.

Mohapatra PK, Mohanty RC (1992). Growth Pattern Changes of Chlorella vulgaris

     and Anabaena doliolum Due to Toxicity of Dimethoate and Endosulfan. Bull

     Environ Contam Toxicol 49(4):576-581.

Niehaus A, Gisselmann G, Schwenn JD (1992). Primary Structure of the

     Synechococcus PCC 7942 PAPS Reductase Gene. Plant Mol Biol


Overmann J, Pfennig N (1992). Buoyancy Regulation and Aggregate Formation in

     Amoebobacter purpureus from Mahoney Lake. FEMS Microbiol Ecol


Vepritskiy AA, Gromov BV, Kononova SK (1992). Production of the trypsin

     inhibitor LU-3 by Nostoc sp. CALU 893 (cyanophyta). Algologia 2:16-19.

Walsby AE, Kinsman R, George KI (1992). The Measurement of Gas Vesicle Volume

     and Buoyant Density in Planktonic Bacteria. J Microbiol Meth



Caudales R, Wells JM, Antoine AD (1992). Cellular Fatty Acid Composition of

     Symbiotic Cyanobacteria Isolated from the Aquatic Fern Azolla. J Gen

     Microbiol 138(JUL):1489-1494.

Davey MW, Lambein F (1992). Semipreparative Isolation of Individual

     Cyanobacterial Heterocyst-Type Glycolipids by Reverse-Phase High-

     Performance Liquid Chromatography. Anal Biochem 206(2):226-230.

Davey MW, Lambein F (1992). Quantitative Derivatization and High-Performance

     Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Cyanobacterial Heterocyst-Type

     Glycolipids. Anal Biochem 206(2):323-327.

Gombos Z, Wada H, Murata N (1992). Unsaturation of Fatty Acids in Membrane

     Lipids Enhances Tolerance of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 to

     Low-Temperature Photoinhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(20):9959-9963.

Kumar D, Singh JB, Kumar HD (1992). Effects of Low Temperature on 2

     Cyanobacteria. J Gen Appl Microbiol Tokyo 38(3):263-270.

Murakami N, Morimoto T, Ueda T, Nagai SI, Sakakibara J, Yamada N (1992).

     Release of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols from a Cyanobacterium,

     Phormidium tenue, into Its Growth Medium. Phytochemistry 31(9):3043-3044.

Murakami N, Morimoto T, Ueda T, Nagai SI, Sakakibara J, Yamada N (1992).

     Studies on Glycolipids. 4. Generation of Lysoglyceroglycolipids in the

     Cyanobacterium, Phormidium tenue. Phytochemistry 31(8):2641-2644.

Murakami N, Shirahashi H, Nagatsu A, Sakakibara J (1992). 2 Unsaturated

     9R-Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae f.

     flos-aquae. Lipids 27(10):776-778.

Murata N, Wada H, Gombos Z (1992). Modes of Fatty-Acid Desaturation in

     Cyanobacteria. Plant Cell Physiol 33(7):933-941.

Soriente A, Sodano G, Gambacorta A, Trincone A (1992). Structure of the

     Heterocyst Glycolipids of the Marine Cyanobacterium Nodularia Harveyana.

     Tetrahedron 48(25):5375-5384.

Wada H, Gombos Z, Sakamoto T, Murata N (1992). Genetic Manipulation of the

     Extent of Desaturation of Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids in the

     Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol 33(5):535-540.

                        SALINITY and STRESS RESPONSES

Arakawa K, Mizuno K, Kishitani S, Takabe T (1992). Immunological Studies of

     Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Barley [Aphanothece halophytica]. Plant

     Cell Physiol 33(7):833-840.

Diaz MR, Visscher PT, Taylor BF (1992). Metabolism of

     Dimethylsulfoniopropionate and Glycine Betaine by a Marine Bacterium

     [Trichodesmium]. FEMS Microbiol Lett 96(1):61-65.

Dubinin AV, Gerasimenko LM, Gusev MV (1992). Physiological Features of a

     Strain of Microcoleus Chthonoplastes from a Hypersaline Reservoir.

     Microbiology-Engl Tr 61(1):47-55.

Hagemann M, Zuther E (1992). Selection and Characterization of Mutants of the

     Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC 6803 Unable to Tolerate High Salt

     Concentrations. Arch Microbiol 158(6):429-434.

Martel A, Yu S, Garciareina G, Lindblad P, Pedersen M (1992).

     Osmotic-Adjustment in the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis - Presence

     of an �-Glucosidase. Plant Physiol Biochem 30(5):573-578.

Collier JL, Grossman AR (1992). Chlorosis Induced by Nutrient Deprivation in

     Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942 - Not All Bleaching Is the Same. J

     Bacteriol 174(14):4718-4726.

Herbert SK, Samson G, Fork DC, Laudenbach DE (1992). Characterization of

     Damage to Photosystem I and Photosystem II in a Cyanobacterium Lacking

     Detectable Iron Superoxide Dismutase Activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Wagner F, Falkner G (1992). Concomitant Changes in Phosphate Uptake and

     Photophosphorylation in the Blue-Green Alga Anacystis nidulans During

     Adaptation to Phosphate Deficiency. J Plant Physiol 140(2):163-167.

                         RESPONSE TO HEAVY METALS

Bolanos L, Garciagonzalez M, Mateo P, Bonilla I (1992). Differential

     Toxicological Response to Cadmium in Anabaena Strain PCC 7119 Grown with

     NO3- or NH4+ as Nitrogen Source. J Plant Physiol 140(3):345-349.

Gupta A, Whitton BA, Morby AP, Huckle JW, Robinson NJ (1992). Amplification

     and Rearrangement of a Prokaryotic Metallothionein Locus smt in

     Synechococcus PCC 6301 Selected for Tolerance to Cadmium. Proc R Soc Lond

     [Biol] 248(1323):273-281.

Lee HL, Lustigman B, Schwinge V, Chiu IY, Hsu S (1992). Effect of Mercury and

     Cadmium on the Growth of Anacystis nidulans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol


Rai LC, Dubey SK, Mallick N (1992). Influence of Chromium on Some

     Physiological Variables of Anabaena Doliolum - Interaction with Metabolic

     Inhibitors. Biometals 5(1):13-16.

Sharma SK, Bisen PS (1992). Hg-2+ and Cd-2+ Induced Inhibition of Light

     Induced Proton Efflux in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. Biometals


Shi JG, Lindsay WP, Huckle JW, Morby AP, Robinson NJ (1992). Cyanobacterial

     Metallothionein Gene Expressed in Escherichia Coli - Metal-Binding

     Properties of the Expressed Protein. FEBS Lett 303(2-3):159-163.

Shimizu T, Hiyama T, Ikeuchi M, Inoue Y (1992). Nucleotide Sequence of a

     Metallothionein Gene of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

     vulcanus. Plant Mol Biol 20(3):565-567.

Singh CB, Singh SP (1992). Assessment of Hg2+ Toxicity to a N2-Fixing

     Cyanobacterium in Long-Term and Short-Term Experiments. Biometals


Singh SP, Singh RK, Pandey PK, Pant A (1992). Factors Regulating Copper

     Uptake in Free and Immobilized Cyanobacterium. Folia Microbiol Prague


Visviki I, Rachlin JW (1992). Ultrastructural Changes in Dunaliella minuta

     Following Acute and Chronic Exposure to Copper and Cadmium. Arch Environ

     Contam Toxicol 23(4):420-425.

Wong PK, Chang L (1992). Effects of Bimetallic and Trimetallic Combinations

     of Heavy Metal Ions on Inorganic Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake in

     Chlorella [Anacystis nidulans]. Microbios 71(286):65-74.

                            NITROGEN METABOLISM

Argall ME, Smith GD, Stamford NPJ, Youens BN (1992). Purification and

     Properties of Urease from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica. Biochem

     Int 27(6):1027-1036.

Avery SV, Codd GA, Gadd GM (1992). Caesium Transport in the Cyanobacterium

     Anabaena variabilis - Kinetics and Evidence for Uptake via Ammonium

     Transport System(s). FEMS Microbiol Lett 95(2-3):253-258.

Bednarz J, Schmid GH (1992). Further Studies on the Induction of Nitrate

     Reductase by Arginine in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria

     Chalybea. Z Naturforsch C 47(7-8):540-544.

Bisen PS, Shanthy S (1992). Physiological and Biochemical Characterization

     of Chlorate-Resistant Mutants of Anabaena Doliolum. Curr Microbiol


Bisen PS, Shanthy S (1992). Biochemical Characterization of Glutamine

     Synthetase from the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium, Anabaena Doliolum. Curr

     Microbiol 25(2):69-75.

Carpenter EJ, Bergman B, Dawson R, Siddiqui PJA, Soderback E, Capone DG

     (1992). Glutamine Synthetase and Nitrogen Cycling in Colonies of the

     Marine Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. Appl Environ

     Microbiol 58(9):3122-3129.

Floriano B, Herrero A, Flores E (1992). Isolation of Arginine Auxotrophs,

     Cloning by Mutant Complementation, and Sequence Analysis of the argC Gene

     from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Species PCC 7120. Mol Microbiol


Jahns T (1992). Regulation of Urea Uptake in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa [Anabaena

     doliolum]. Anton Leeuwenhoek Int J Gen M 62(3):173-179.

Lightfoot DA, Baron AJ, Cock JM, Wootton JC (1992). A Nitrate Reductase Gene

     of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6301 Inferred by Heterologous

     Hybridization, Cloning and Targeted Mutagenesis. Genetica 85(2):107-117.

Martin-Nieto J, Flores E, Herrero A (1992). Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of

     Nitrate Reductase from Heterocystous, Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria. Plant

     Physiol 100(1):157-163.

Mccarty GW, Bremner JM (1992). Inhibition of Assimilatory Nitrate Reductase

     Activity in Soil by Glutamine and Ammonium Analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Milano A, Derossi E, Zanaria E, Barbierato L, Ciferri O, Riccardi G (1992).

     Molecular Characterization of the Genes Encoding Acetohydroxy Acid

     Synthase in the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Platensis. J Gen Microbiol


Miyaji T, Tamura G (1992). Isolation and Partial Characterization of

     Homogeneous Nitrite Reductase from a Cyanobacterium, Aphanothece sacrum.

     Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56(8):1333-1334.

Powell HA, Kerby NW, Rowell P, Mousdale DM, Coggins JR (1992). Purification

     and Properties of a Glyphosate-Tolerant 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-Phosphate

     Synthase from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Planta


Singh AK, Singh RK, Rao KS, Chakravarty D, Singh HN (1992). Mutational

     Analysis of Glutamine Synthetase Response to the Ammonium Analogue

     Ethylene Diamine in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc Muscorum. FEMS Microbiol

     Lett 95(1):43-48.

Singh S (1992). Regulation of Glutamine Uptake in the Cyanobiont Nostoc ANTH.

     FEMS Microbiol Lett 98(1-3):245-248.

Singh S (1992). Nitrite Metabolism in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cycadeae

     - Regulation of Nitrite Uptake and Nitrite Reductase by Ammonia. FEMS

     Microbiol Lett 98(1-3):249-253.

Vegapalas MA, Flores E, Herrero A (1992). NtcA, a Global Nitrogen Regulator

     from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus That Belongs to the Crp Family of

     Bacterial Regulators. Mol Microbiol 6(13):1853-1859.

                             NITROGEN FIXATION

Bohm I, Halbherr A, Smaglinski S, Ernst A, B�ger P (1992). Invitro Activation

     of Dinitrogenase Reductase from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

     (ATCC 29413). J Bacteriol 174(19):6179-6183.

Brass S, Ernst A, B�ger P (1992). Induction and Modification of Dinitrogenase

     Reductase in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechocystis BO 8402. Arch

     Microbiol 158(6):422-428.

Fay P (1992). Oxygen Relations of Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacteria.

     Microbiol Rev 56(2):340-373.

Grobbelaar N, Huang TC (1992). Effect of Oxygen and Temperature on the

     Induction of a Circadian Nitrogenase Activity Rhythm in Synechococcus

     RF-1. J Plant Physiol 140(4):391-394.

Marsalek B, Simek M (1992). Abscisic Acid and Its Synthetic Analog in

     Relation to Growth and Nitrogenase Activity of Azotobacter chroococcum and

     Nostoc muscorum. Folia Microbiol Prague 37(2):159-160.

Marsalek B, Simek M, Smith RJ (1992). The Effect of Ecdysterone on the

     Cyanobacterium Nostoc 6720. Z Naturforsch C 47(9-10):726-730.

Singh RK, Stevens SE (1992). Cloning of the nifHDK Genes and Their

     Organisation in the Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus Laminosus.

     FEMS Microbiol Lett 94(3):227-234.

Tsygankov AA, Chan VN, Gogotov IN (1991). Anabaena variabilis in Continuous

     Culture Growth and Adaptation Potential of Its Nitrogenase System.

     Microbiology-Engl Tr 60(5):591-595.

Villbrandt M, Stal LJ, Bergman B, Krumbein WE (1992). Immunolocalization and

     Western Blot Analysis of Nitrogenase in Oscillatoria limosa During a

     Light-Dark Cycle. Bot Acta 105(2):90-96.


Canini A, Civitareale P, Marini S, Caiola MG, Rotilio G (1992). Purification

     of Iron Superoxide Dismutase from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica

     Lemm and Localization of the Enzyme in Heterocysts by Immunogold Labeling.

     Planta 187(4):438-444.

Ernst A, Black T, Cai YP, Panoff JM, Tiwari DN, Wolk CP (1992). Synthesis of

     Nitrogenase in Mutants of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Sp Strain PCC 7120

     Affected in Heterocyst Development or Metabolism. J Bacteriol


Liang J, Scappino L, Haselkorn R (1992). The patA Gene Product, Which

     Contains a Region Similar to cheY of Escherichia-Coli, Controls Heterocyst

     Pattern Formation in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120. Proc Natl Acad Sci

     USA 89(12):5655-5659.

Onek LA, Smith RJ (1992). Calmodulin and Calcium Mediated Regulation in

     Prokaryotes. J Gen Microbiol 138(JUN):1039-1049.

Sarma TA, Khattar JIS (1992). Phosphorus Deficiency, Nitrogen Assimilation

     and Akinete Differentiation in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa. Folia

     Microbiol Prague 37(3):223-226.

                              CARBON METABOLISM

Amichay D, Sheffer M, Gurevitz M (1992). Restoration of the Wild-Type Locus

     in an Rubp Carboxylase/Oxygenase Mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803 via

     Targeted Gene Recombination. Mol Gen Genet 235(2-3):247-252.

Bloye SA, Karagouni AD, Carr NG (1992). A Continuous-Culture Approach to the

     Question of Inorganic Carbon Concentration by Synechococcus Species. FEMS

     Microbiol Lett 99(1):79-84.

Bloye SA, Silman NJ, Mann NH, Carr NG (1992). Bicarbonate Concentration by

     Synechocystis PCC 6803 - Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation and

     Inorganic Carbon Transport by Glucose. Plant Physiol 99(2):601-606.

Charng YY, Kakefuda G, Iglesias AA, Buikema WJ, Preiss J (1992). Molecular

     Cloning and Expression of the Gene Encoding ADP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase

     from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Sp Strain PCC 7120. Plant Mol Biol


Dephilippis R, Sili C, Vincenzini M (1992). Glycogen and

     poly-�-hydroxybutyrate Synthesis in Spirulina Maxima. J Gen Microbiol

     138(Part 8):1623-1628.

Iglesias AA, Kakefuda G, Preiss J (1992). Involvement of Arginine Residues

     in the Allosteric Activation and Inhibition of Synechocystis PCC 6803 ADP

     Glucose Pyrophosphorylase. J Protein Chem 11(2):119-128.

Marcus Y, Berry JA, Pierce J (1992). Photosynthesis and Photorespiration in

     a Mutant of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 Lacking

     Carboxysomes. Planta 187(4):511-516.

Mckay RML, Gibbs SP, Espie GS (1993). Effect of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

     on the Expression of Carboxysomes, Localization of Rubisco and the Mode

     of Inorganic Carbon Transport in Cells of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

     UTEX 625. Arch Microbiol 159(1):21-29.

Morell MK, Kane HJ, Hudson GS, Andrews TJ (1992). Effects of Mutations at

     Residue-309 of the Large Subunit of Ribulosebisphosphate Carboxylase from

     Synechococcus PCC 6301. Arch Biochem Biophys 299(2):295-301.

Ogawa T (1992). Identification and Characterization of the ictA/ndhL Gene

     Product Essential to Inorganic Carbon Transport of Synechocystis PCC 6803.

     Plant Physiol 99(4):1604-1608.

Price GD, Coleman JR, Badger MR (1992). Association of Carbonic Anhydrase

     Activity with Carboxysomes Isolated from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

     PCC 7942. Plant Physiol 100(2):784-793.

Scanlan DJ, Newman J, Sebaihia M, Mann NH, Carr NG (1992). Cloning and

     Sequence Analysis of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene from the

     Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Plant Mol Biol 19(5):877-880.

Yu JW, Price GD, Song L, Badger MR (1992). Isolation of a Putative

     Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Gene from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

     PCC 7942. Plant Physiol 100(2):794-800.


Aizawa K, Shimizu T, Hiyama T, Satoh K, Nakamura Y, Fujita Y (1992). Changes

     in Composition of Membrane Proteins Accompanying the Regulation of

     PSI/PSII Stoichiometry Observed with Synechocystis PCC 6803. Photosynth

     Res 32(2):131-138.

Bruce D, Salehian O (1992). Laser-Induced Optoacoustic Calorimetry of

     Cyanobacteria - The Efficiency of Primary Photosynthetic Processes in

     State-1 and State-2. Biochim Biophys Acta 1100(3):242-250.

Cullen JJ, Neale PJ, Lesser MP (1992). Biological Weighting Function for the

     Inhibition of Phytoplankton Photosynthesis by Ultraviolet Radiation.

     Science 258(5082):646-650.

Grotjohann R, Rho MS, Kowallik W (1992). Influences of Blue and Red Light on

     the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Chlorella kessleri - Alterations in

     Pigment- Protein Complexes. Bot Acta 105(3):168-173.

Kaurov YN, Aksyonova GE, Lovyagina ER, Ivanov II, Rubin AB (1992).

     Thermally-Induced Delayed Fluorescence of Photosystem I and Photosystem II

     Chlorophyll in Thermophilic Cyanobacterium - Synechococcus elongatus. Gen

     Physiol Biophys 11(3):229-239.

Klein RM (1992). Effects of Green Light on Biological Systems. Biol Rev

     Cambridge Phil Soc 67(2):199-284.

Maeda H, Watanabe T, Kobayashi M (1992). Assay of Photosynthetic Reaction

     Centres by HPLC Quantitation of Chlorophyll-a' and Pheophytin-a -

     Application to the Chromatic Regulation of Photosystem Stoichiometry in

     Cyanophytes. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol 13(3-4):267-274.

Marquardt J, Ried A (1992). Fractionation of Thylakoid Membranes from

     Porphyridium purpureum Using the Detergent N-Lauryl-�-Iminodipropionate

     - A Study on the Chlorophyll-Protein and Pigment Composition of the

     Membrane-Intrinsic Antenna Compl. Planta 187(3):372-380.

Ritter S, Komenda J, Setlikova E, Setlik I, Welte W (1992). Immobilized Metal

     Affinity Chromatography for the Separation of Photosystem I and

     Photosystem II from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

     Elongatus. J Chromatogr 625(1):21-31.

Sidirelliwolff M, Nultsch W, Agel G (1992). Effects of Exposure to Strong

     Light on the Ultrastructure of Vegetative Cells of the Cyanobacterium

     Anabaena variabilis. Microbios 70(283):129-138.

                                PHOTOSYSTEM I

Bottcher B, Graber P, Boekema EJ (1992). The Structure of Photosystem I from

     the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp. Determined by Electron

     Microscopy of 2-Dimensional Crystals. Biochim Biophys Acta


Ikeuchi M (1992). Subunit Proteins of Photosystem I - Mini Review. Plant Cell

     Physiol 33(6):669-676.

Lin S, Vanamerongen H, Struve WS (1992). Ultrafast Pump-Probe Spectroscopy

     of the P700-Containing and Fx-Containing Photosystem I Core Protein from

     Synechococcus Sp PCC 6301 (Anacystis Nidulans). Biochim Biophys Acta


Medina M, Hervas M, Navarro JA, Delarosa MA, Gomezmoreno C, Tollin G (1992).

     A Laser Flash Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Anabaena Sp PCC 7119

     Flavodoxin Photoreduction by Photosystem I Particles from Spinach. FEBS

     Lett 313(3):239-242.

Mullineaux CW (1992). Excitation Energy Transfer from Phycobilisomes to

     Photosystem I in a Cyanobacterium. Biochim Biophys Acta 1100(3):285-292.

Nyhus KJ, Ikeuchi M, Inoue Y, Whitmarsh J, Pakrasi HB (1992). Purification

     and Characterization of the Photosystem I Complex from the Filamentous

     Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. J Biol Chem


Otcovsky J, Hladik J, Sofrova D (1992). The Influence of Sodium

     Dodecylsulfate on the Stability of Cyanobacterial Photosystem 1

     Pigment-Protein Complexes. J Plant Physiol 140(6):667-672.

Shubin VV, Bezsmertnaya IN, Karapetyan NV (1992). Isolation from Spirulina

     Membranes of 2 Photosystem I-Type Complexes, One of Which Contains

     Chlorophyll Responsible for the 77-K Fluorescence Band at 760 nm. FEBS

     Lett 309(3):340-342.

Sonoike K, Ikeuchi M, Pakrasi HB (1992). Presence of an N-Terminal

     Presequence in the PsaI Protein of the Photosystem I Complex in the

     Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. Plant Mol Biol


Steinmuller K (1992). Identification of a 2nd psaC Gene in the Cyanobacterium

     Synechocystis Sp. PCC 6803. Plant Mol Biol 20(5):997-1001.

                                PHOTOSYSTEM II

Boerner RJ, Nguyen AP, Barry BA, Debus RJ (1992). Evidence from Directed

     Mutagenesis That Aspartate-170 of the D1 Polypeptide Influences the

     Assembly and/or Stability of the Manganese Cluster in the Photosynthetic

     Water-Splitting Complex. Biochemistry 31(29):6660-6672.

Burnap RL, Shen JR, Jursinic PA, Inoue Y, Sherman LA (1992). Oxygen Yield and

     Thermoluminescence Characteristics of a Cyanobacterium Lacking the

     Manganese-Stabilizing Protein of Photosystem II. Biochemistry


Debus RJ (1992). The Manganese and Calcium Ions of Photosynthetic Oxygen

     Evolution. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102(3):269-352.

Gleiter HM, Ohad N, Koike H, Hirschberg J, Renger G, Inoue Y (1992).

     Thermoluminescence and Flash-Induced Oxygen Yield in Herbicide Resistant

     Mutants of the D1 Protein in Synechococcus PCC 7942. Biochim Biophys Acta


Koenig F (1992). Development of shade-type appearance -- light intensity

     adaptation -- and regulation of the D1 protein in Synechococcus. In:

     Regulation of Chloroplast Biogenesis (Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH, ed) Plenum

     Press, NY. pp.545-550. 

Kulkarni RD, Schaefer MR, Golden SS (1992). Transcriptional and

     Posttranscriptional Components of psbA Response to High Light Intensity

     in Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942. J Bacteriol 174(11):3775-3781.

Meunier PC, Bendall DS (1992). Analysis of Fluorescence Induction in

     Thylakoids with the Method of Moments Reveals 2 Different Active

     Photosystem II Centres. Photosynth Res 32(2):109-120.

Nilsson F, Gounaris K, Styring S, Andersson B (1992). Isolation and

     Characterization of Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Membranes from the

     Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. Biochim Biophys Acta 1100(3):251-258.

Nixon PJ, Trost JT, Diner BA (1992). Role of the Carboxy Terminus of

     Polypeptide D1 in the Assembly of a Functional Water-Oxidizing Manganese

     Cluster in Photosystem II of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC 6803

     - Assembly Requires a Free Carboxyl Group. Biochemistry


Oquist G, Anderson JM, Mccaffery S, Chow WS (1992). Mechanistic Differences

     in Photoinhibition of Sun and Shade Plants. Planta 188(3):422-431.

Perewoska I, Vernotte C, Picaud M, Astier C (1992). Mutations in the D1

     Subunit of Photosystem II and Resistance to the Phenol Type Herbicide

     Ioxynil in Synechocystis PCC 6714 and 6803. Z Naturforsch C


Putnamevans C, Bricker TM (1992). Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the CPa-1

     Protein of Photosystem II - Alteration of the Basic Residue Pair (384,

     385)R to (384, 385)G Leads to a Defect Associated with the Oxygen-Evolving

     Complex. Biochemistry 31(46):11482-11488.

Richter M, Bothin B, Wild A (1992). Changes of the Quantum Yield of Oxygen

     Evolution and the Electron Transport Capacity of Isolated Spinach

     Thylakoids During Photoinhibition. J Plant Physiol 140(2):244-246.

Satoh K, Koike H, Ichimura T, Katoh S (1992). Binding Affinities of

     Benzoquinones to the Q(B) Site of Photosystem II in Synechococcus

     Oxygen-Evolving Preparation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102(1):45-52.

Smith D, Bendall DS, Howe CJ (1992). Occurrence of a Photosystem II

     Polypeptide in Non-Photosynthetic Membranes of Cyanobacteria. Mol

     Microbiol 6(13):1821-1827.

Vass I, Cook KM, Deak Z, Mayes SR, Barber J (1992). Thermoluminescence and

     Flash-Oxygen Characterization of the IC2 Deletion Mutant of Synechocystis

     sp PCC 6803 Lacking the Photosystem II 33 kDa Protein. Biochim Biophys

     Acta 1102(2):195-201.


Bekasova OD, Mutuskin AA, Krasnovskii AA (1991). Photochemistry of

     Phycobilisomes - Photosensitized NADP Reduction by Ascorbate.

     Biochemistry-Engl Tr 56(12):1577-1582.

Bernard C, Thomas JC, Mazel D, Mousseau A, Castets AM, Demarsac NT, Dubacq

     (1992). Characterization of the Genes Encoding Phycoerythrin in the Red

     Alga Rhodella Violacea - Evidence for a Splitting of the rpeB Gene by an

     Intron. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(20):9564-9568.

Chiang GG, Schaefer MR, Grossman AR (1992). Complementation of a

     Red-Light-Indifferent Cyanobacterial Mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Cornejo J, Beale SI, Terry MJ, Lagarias JC (1992). Phytochrome Assembly - The

     Structure and Biological Activity of 2(R), 3(E)-Phytochromobilin Derived

     from Phycobiliproteins. J Biol Chem 267(21):14790-14798.

Debreczeny M, Gombos Z, Szalontai B (1992). Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman

     Spectroscopy of Phycocyanin and Allophycocyanin. Eur Biophys J


Delorimier R, Chen CCJ, Glazer AN (1992). Sequence Comparison of 2 Highly

     Homologous Phycoerythrins Differing in Bilin Composition. Plant Mol Biol


Federspiel NA, Scott L (1992). Characterization of a Light-Regulated Gene

     Encoding a New Phycoerythrin-Associated Linker Protein from the

     Cyanobacterium Fremyella Diplosiphon. J Bacteriol 174(18):5994-5998.

Fischer M, Hader DP (1992). UV Effects on Photosynthesis and Phycobiliprotein

     Composition in the Flagellate Cyanophora paradoxa. FEMS Microbiol Ecol


Fischer R, Scheer H (1992). Dissociating Effect of Chromophore Modifications

     on C-Phycocyanin Heterohexamers. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol


Gindt YM, Zhou JH, Bryant DA, Sauer K (1992). Core Mutations of Synechococcus

     Sp PCC 7002 Phycobilisomes - A Spectroscopic Study. J Photochem Photobiol

     B-Biol 15(1-2):75-89.

Su X, Fraenkel PG, Bogorad L (1992). Excitation Energy Transfer from

     Phycocyanin to Chlorophyll in an apcA-Defective Mutant of Synechocystis

     Sp PCC 6803. J Biol Chem 267(32):22944-22950.

Valentin K, Maid U, Emich A, Zetsche K (1992). Organization and Expression

     of a Phycobiliprotein Gene Cluster from the Unicellular Red Alga Cyanidium

     caldarium. Plant Mol Biol 20(2):267-276.

Xia AD, Zhang XY, Hong QA, Meng JW, Hou SG, Sudha M, Sai PSM, Jha IB (1992).

     Spectroscopic Characteristics and Energy Transfer Processes in

     C-Phycocyanin from Cyanobacterium Westiellopsis Prolifica. Sci China Ser

     B 35(7):811-821.


Berrylowe SL, Grimm B, Smith MA, Kannangara CG (1992). Purification and

     Characterization of Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase from Barley

     Expressed in Escherichia Coli. Plant Physiol 99(4):1597-1603.

Cheng LJ, Jiang LJ (1992). Circular Dichroism and Stereochemistry of the

     Phycobilins and Their Derivatives. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol


Garciapichel F, Sherry ND, Castenholz RW (1992). Evidence for an Ultraviolet

     Sunscreen Role of the Extracellular Pigment Scytonemin in the Terrestrial

     Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis Sp. Photochem Photobiol 56(1):17-23.

Grimm B (1992). Identification of a hemA Gene from Synechocystis by

     Complementation of an E-Coli hemA Mutant. Hereditas 117(2):195-197.

Markwell J, Bruce BD, Keegstra K (1992). Isolation of a Carotenoid-Containing

     Sub-Membrane Particle from the Chloroplastic Envelope Outer Membrane of

     Pea (Pisum-Sativum). J Biol Chem 267(20):13933-13937.

Pinevich AV, Tolstaya TV (1991). Biogenesis of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

     of Anabaena Sp Under Conditions of Inhibition of Tetrapyrrole Synthesis.

     Microbiology-Engl Tr 60(6):667-674.

Suzuki JY, Bauer CE (1992). Light-Independent Chlorophyll Biosynthesis -

     Involvement of the Chloroplast Gene chiL (frxC). Plant Cell 4(8):929-940.

Swanson RV, Zhou JH, Leary JA, Williams T, Delorimier R, Bryant DA, Glazer

     AN (1992). Characterization of Phycocyanin Produced by cpcE and cpcF

     Mutants and Identification of an Intergenic Suppressor of the Defect in

     Bilin Attachment. J Biol Chem 267(23):16146-16154.

Zhou JH, Gasparich GE, Stirewalt VL, Delorimier R, Bryant DA (1992). The cpcE

     and cpcF Genes of Synechococcus Sp PCC 7002 - Construction and Phenotypic

     Characterization of Interposon Mutants. J Biol Chem 267(23):16138-16145.


Bovy A, Devrieze G, Borrias M, Weisbeek P (1992). Isolation and Sequence

     Analysis of a Gene Encoding a Basic Cytochrome c553 from the Cyanobacterium

     Anabaena Sp PCC 7937. Plant Mol Biol 19(3):491-492.

Brand SN, Tan XL, Widger WR (1992). Cloning and Sequencing of the petBD

     Operon from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp PCC 7002. Plant Mol Biol


Lavergne J, Bouchaud JP, Joliot P (1992). Plastoquinone Compartmentation in

     Chloroplasts. 2. Theoretical Aspects. Biochim Biophys Acta 1101(1):13-22.

Leonhardt K, Straus NA (1992). An Iron Stress Operon Involved in

     Photosynthetic Electron Transport in the Marine Cyanobacterium

     Synechococcus Sp PCC 7002. J Gen Microbiol 138(Part 8):1613-1621.

Malkin R (1992). Cytochrome bc1 and Cytochrome b6f Complexes of Photosynthetic

     Membranes [Nostoc PCC 7906]. Photosynth Res 33(2):121-136.

Shanker S, Moomaw C, Guner S, Hsu J, Tokito MK, Daldal F, Knaff DB, Harman

     JG (1992). Characterization of the pet Operon of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

     Photosynth Res 32(2):79-94.

Bottin H, Lagoutte B (1992). Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin from the

     Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC 6803. Biochim Biophys Acta


Bovy A, Devrieze G, Borrias M, Weisbeek P (1992). Transcriptional Regulation

     of the Plastocyanin and Cytochrome c553 Genes from the Cyanobacterium

     Anabaena Species PCC 7937. Mol Microbiol 6(11):1507-1513.

Medina M, Mendez E, Gomezmoreno C (1992). Identification of Arginyl Residues

     Involved in the Binding of Ferredoxin NADP+ Reductase from Anabaena Sp

     PCC 7119 to Its Substrates. Arch Biochem Biophys 299(2):281-286.

Rao ST, Shaffie F, Yu C, Satyshur KA, Stockman BJ, Markley JL, Sundaralingam

     M (1992). Structure of the Oxidized Long-Chain Flavodoxin from

     Anabaena 7120 at 2 � Resolution. Protein Sci 1(11):1413-1427.

Zhang L, Mcspadden B, Pakrasi HB, Whitmarsh J (1992). Copper-Mediated

     Regulation of Cytochrome c553 and Plastocyanin in the Cyanobacterium

     Synechocystis 6803. J Biol Chem 267(27):19054-19059.

Ellersiek U, Steinmuller K (1992). Cloning and Transcription Analysis of the

     ndh(A-I-G-E) Gene Cluster and the ndhD Gene of the Cyanobacterium

     Synechocystis Sp PCC 6803. Plant Mol Biol 20(6):1097-1110.

Rozen A, Mittler R, Burstein Y, Telor E (1992). A Unique Ascorbate Peroxidase

     Active Component in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942 (R2). Free

     yRadical Res Commun 17(1):1-8.

Suda S, Kumazawa S, Mitsui A (1992). Change in the H2 Photoproduction

     Capability in a Synchronously Grown Aerobic Nitrogen-Fixing

     Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus Sp Miami BG 043511. Arch Microbiol



Chiang GG, Schaefer MR, Grossman AR (1992). Transformation of the Filamentous

     Cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon by Conjugation or Electroporation.

     Plant Physiol Biochem 30(3):315-325.

Sode K, Tatara M, Ogawa S, Matsunaga T (1992). Maintenance of Broad Host

     Range Vector pKT230 in Marine Unicellular Cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol

     Lett 99(1):73-78.

Sode K, Tatara M, Takeyama H, Burgess JG, Matsunaga T (1992). Conjugative

     Gene Transfer in Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechococcus Sp, Synechocystis

     Sp and Pseudanabaena Sp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37(3):369-373.

Mak YM, Ho KK (1992). An Improved Method for the Isolation of Chromosomal DNA

     from Various Bacteria and Cyanobacteria. Nucleic Acids Res


Perkins DR, Barnum SR (1992). DNA Sequence and Analysis of a Cryptic 4.2-kb

     Plasmid from the Filamentous Cyanobacterium, Plectonema Sp Strain

     PCC 6402. Plasmid 28(2):170-176.

Vachhani AK, Iyer RK, Tuli R (1992). Characterization of a Small Endogenous

     Plasmid from the Cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. J Biosciences


Walton DK, Gendel SM, Atherly AG (1992). Nucleotide Sequence of the

     Replication Region of the Nostoc PCC 7524 Plasmid pDU1. Nucleic Acids Res


Brahamsha B, Haselkorn R (1992). Identification of Multiple RNA Polymerase

     Sigma Factor Homologs in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Sp Strain PCC 7120

     - Cloning, Expression, and Inactivation of the sigB and sigC Genes.

     J Bacteriol 174(22):7273-7282.

Kim ST, Heelis PF, Sancar A (1992). Energy Transfer (Deazaflavin -> FADH2)

     and Electron Transfer (FADH2 -> T-Less-Than-Greater-Than-T) Kinetics in

     Anacystis Nidulans Photolyase. Biochemistry 31(45):11244-11248.

Malhotra K, Kim ST, Walsh C, Sancar A (1992). Roles of FAD and

     8-Hydroxy-5-Deazaflavin Chromophores in Photoreactivation by Anacystis

     Nidulans DNA Photolyase. J Biol Chem 267(22):15406-15411.

Miyake M, Kotani H, Asada Y (1992). Isolation and Identification of

     Restriction Endonuclease, SelI from a Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus

     Elongatus. Nucleic Acids Res 20(10):2605.

Muro-Pastor AM, Flores E, Herrero A, Wolk CP (1992). Identification, Genetic

     Analysis and Characterization of a Sugar-Nonspecific Nuclease from the

     Cyanobacterium Anabaena Sp PCC 7120. Mol Microbiol 6(20):3021-3030.

Pandey KD, Kashyap AK (1992). Induction of Mutation in the Cyanobacterium

     Anabaena Doliolum - A Strain-Specific Property. Folia Microbiol Prague


Tanaka K, Masuda S, Takahashi H (1992). Multiple rpoD-Related Genes of

     Cyanobacteria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56(7):1113-1117.

Tanaka K, Masuda S, Takahashi H (1992). The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of

     the Gene (rpoD1) Encoding the Principal � Factor of the RNA Polymerase

     from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942. Biochim Biophys

     Acta 1132(1):94-96.

Nakai M, Tanaka A, Omata T, Endo T (1992). Cloning and Characterization of

     the secY Gene from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Biochim

     Biophys Acta 1171(1):113-116.

                          APPLIED CYANOBACTERIOLOGY

Benemann JR (1992). Microalgae aquaculture feeds. J Appl Phycol 4:233-245.

Mahasneh IA, Tiwari DN (1992). The Use of Biofertilizer of Calothrix Sp M103,

     Enhanced by Addition of Iron and Siderophore Production. J Appl Bacteriol


Pant A, Srivastava SC, Singh SP (1992). Methyl Mercury Uptake by Free and

     Immobilized Cyanobacterium. Biometals 5(4):229-234.

Radway JC, Weissman JC, Wilde EW, Benemann JR (1992). Exposure of Fischerella

     [Mastigocladus] to high and low temperature extremes: strain evaluation

     for a thermal mitigation process. J Appl Phycol 4:67-77.

Roger PA, Zimmerman WJ, Lumpkin TA (1992). Microbiological Management of

     Wetland Rice Fields. In: Soil Microbial Ecology: Applications in

     Agricultural and Environmental Managemement (MB Metting Jr, ed). Marcel

     Dekker, New York. pp.417-455.

Thomas SP, Kamalaveni R, Shanmugasundaram S (1992). Agrochemical Resistant

     Mutants of Nitrogen Fixing Cyanobacterium Tolypothrix tenuis as Nitrogen

     Fertilizer for Rice. Biotechnol Lett 14(10):969-974.

Vonshak A, Guy R (1992). Photoadaptation, Photoinhibition and Productivity

     in the Blue-Green Alga, Spirulina platensis Grown Outdoors. Plant Cell

     Environ 15(5):613-616.



Enrique Flores  Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad

                de Sevilla-CSIC, Apartado 1113, 41080 Sevilla,

                SPAIN. (Fax) 95-4620154. (E-Mail) Flores@Cica.Es

Jim Golden      Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College

                Station, TX 77843-3258 U.S.A. (Tel) 409-845-9823.

                (FAX) 409-845-2891. (E-mail) jgolden@bio.tamu.edu 

Chris Howe      Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis

                Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK

Paul P. Jackson School of Biological & Health Sciences, University of

                Westminster, U.K. (E-Mail) Jackson@Mole.pcl.ac.uk

Martin Mulligan Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St.

                John's, Nefoundland, A1B 3X9 CANADA. (Tel) 709-737-7978.

                (Fax) 709-737-2422. (E-Mail) Mulligan@Kean.Ucs.Mun.Ca

Geoff Smith     Dept. of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Australian

                National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601 AUSTRALIA

                (E-Mail) GDS658@Cscgpo.anu.edu.au

Brian Whitton   Dept. of Botany, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE U.K.

                (E-Mail) B.A.Whitton@durham.ac.uk 


Send CONTRIBUTIONS to one of the addresses listed below.  To SUBSCRIBE, send

$10 U.S. (or equivalent in any currency) per year to Jeff Elhai, along with

your name, telephone, FAX, and EMail numbers (if any), and a brief

description of your research interests for inclusion in the next Directory

of Cyanobacteriologists.  If it is difficult for you to send hard currency,

send a note indicating your interest.

AUSTRALIA     Steve Delaney            Department of Biotechnology,

                                       University of New South Wales, P.O. 

                                       Box 1, Kensington, New South Wales

                                       AUSTRALIA 2033

AUSTRIA       Georg Schmetterer        Institut fur Physikalische Chemie,

                                       Wahringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien

                                       (EMail) A8422dad@Awiuni11

CANADA        Neil Strauss             Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Toronto, Toronto, Ontario  M5S 1A1.

                                       (E-mail) StrausNA@gpu.utcs.UToronto.Ca

P.R.CHINA     Shang-Hao Li             Laboratory of Phycology, Institute

                                       of Hydrobiology, Academia Sinica,


CZECHOSLOV.   Jiri Komarek             Institute of Botany, CAS Dept. of

                                       Hydrobotany, Dukelske 145, CS-37982


FRANCE        Nicole Tandeau de Marsac Physiologie Microbienne, Institut

                                       Pasteur, 29 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724

                                       Paris Cedex 15. (EMail) Cyano@Pasteur

GERMANY       Wolfgang Lockau          Institut fuer Botanik, Universitaet,

                                       Universitaetsstr. 31, 8400


INDIA         Joe Thomas               Biotechnology Division, SPIC Science

                                       Foundation, 110 Mount Road, Madras

                                       600 032

ISRAEL        Elisha Tel-Or            Dept. of Agricultural Botany, The

                                       Hebrew University, Rehovot 76100

                                       (Tel) 08-481262

ITALY         Mario Tredici            Centro di Studio dei Microorganismi

                                       Autotrof. (C.N.R.), P.le. delle

                                       Cascine 27 51044 Firenze

                                       (E-mail) D47000@Ifiidg.Fi.Cnr.It

NETHERLANDS   Luuc Mur                 Laboratorium voor Microbiologie,

                                       Universiteit voor Amsterdam, Nieuwe

                                       Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam

SCANDANAVIA   Olav Skulberg            Norwegian Institute for Water

                                       Research, P.O.box 69 Korsvall, N-0808

                                       Oslo 8 NORWAY

U.K.          Tony Walsby              Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG

ANYWHERE ELSE Jeff Elhai               Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida

                                       International University, University

                                       Park Campus, Miami FL 33199 USA. 

                                       (Tel) 305-348-3584, (Fax) 305-348-3094 

                                       (E-mail) Cyano@Servax.Bitnet

                                            or  Cyano@Servax.Fiu.Edu