PDF of CyanoNews Volume 11 Number 1


                     Volume 11 Number 1        February 1995


CYANONEWS - a newsletter intended to provide cyanobacteriologists with a forum

       for rapid informal communication, unavailable through journals.

       Everything you read in this newsletter is contributed by readers like

       yourself. Published occasionally, about three times per year.

SUBSCRIPTIONS - $10 or equivalent/year. (See address label for expiration

       date). No charge for electronic version.

CONTRIBUTIONS - Expected every couple of years: a new result, an upcoming

       meeting or a summary of a past meeting, a post-doctoral opening, a new

       publication, a request for strains, a change of life... something. See

       last page for addresses you can send news to.


       prominently displayed, the name of a contact person. A Directory of

       Cyanobacteriologists is distributed every two years or on request. 


COPYRIGHT - This newsletter is not copyrighted and no rights are reserved. You

       are encouraged to reproduce or to transmit any part of this publication

       by whatever means at your disposal, no permission required.





  * "Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria" now available

  * Translation, editing service

  * Backpacking trip

  * How to get the news out about collections of cyanobacteria

  * Meetings

  * Positions sought, Positions available


  * Comings and goings of ourselves

  * Daniel Arnon (1910-1994)


  *  Chromophore spectra made plain

  *  Startling glycolipid genes in hetR region

  *  Plastocyanin works in normally PC-less strain

  *  Calcium powers cyanobacterial membranes

  *  New extrinsic PSII protein

  *  Meeting report: Phototrophic Prokaryotes






                          ****** Matters Arising ******

That mammoth project, THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CYANOBACTERIA, edited by Don

Bryant, has finally been published, all 28 chapters and 916 pages. The book

is divided into four parts: (1) molecular evolution and taxonomy,

(2) structural and functional aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus, and

(3) biochemical processes, and (4) gene regulation and the phenomena they

regulate. It is available at US $355 (hardbound) or US $190 (paperback).

   Contact (North America): Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Order Dept.

       P.O. Box 358, Accord Station, Hingham MA 02018-0358 USA. Tel: 617-

       871-6600, Fax: 617-871-6528, E-mail: Kluwer@World.Std.Com

   Contact (elsewhere): Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Order Dept.,

       P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Tel: 31-78-524400,

       Fax: 31-78-524474, E-mail: Services@Wkap.Nl

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

       Gisela Hoschek is offering a novel service. She is recently retired from

laboratory work (molecular biology, biochemistry, molecular genetics) but

wants to stay connected and active. Her idea is to offer her services to HELP

TRANSLATE OR EDIT research papers or grant applications in English written by

authors who are not native speakers. She is fluent in German and passable in


       Contact: Gisela Hoschek, 1124 Nardo Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 USA.

       Tel: 619-944-4233, E-mail: Hoschek@Jeeves.Ucsd.Edu

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

       As seems to happen once every year or two, Peter Wolk is wondering

whether any cyanobacteriologist might care to accompany him on a BACKPACKING

TRIP in the U.S. Rockies. The trip will occur sometime this summer. 

       Contact: Peter Wolk, 22333cpw@msu.edu or 517-353-2049.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

       P.K. Singh hopes to use the newsletter as a vehicle for disseminating

information about the various COLLECTIONS OF CYANOBACTERIA held throughout the

world. As a start, he has described the objectives of the National Facility

for Blue-Green Algal Collection (in New Delhi, India) of which he is the

Project Director. Its objectives are: 

  1.To act as a national center for cultures of cyanobacteria;

  2.To conduct research on cyanobacteria, especially the occurrence and

       distribution of N2-fixing strains, their isolation, maintenance, and

       preservation, but also cyanobacterial physiology and genetics; 

  3.To provide advice to farmers in the use of cyanobacterial biofertilizers; 

  4.To organize seminars, conferences, and training sessions;

  5.To act as a strong center for national research and development;

  6.To provide advice on policy matters.

       Contact: National Facility for Blue-Green Algal Collection (Auditorium

       Complex), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012,

       INDIA. Tel: 91-011-578-8431, Fax: 91-011-575-2006, E-mail: Guest%Bic-


                             ****** Meetings ******

The 12th Annual Eastern Regional Photosynthesis Conference is scheduled for

24-26 March, 1995 at Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA.

Undergraduates, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows are especially

encouraged to deliver oral presentations. A single fee covering registration,

accommodations for two nights, and meals starts at US$162. Checks should be

made payable to City College Bursar c/o Regional Photosynthesis Conference.

       Contact: Marilyn Gunner, Dept. of Physics, City College of New York,

       138th St. and Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031 USA. Tel: 212-650-5501.

       Fax: 212-650-550312, E-mail: Gunner@Sci.Ccny.Cuny.Edu

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The Third European Workshop on the Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria is

scheduled for 11-14 May, 1995 in Sevilla, Spain. The registration fee will be

25,000 Spanish pesetas, with hotel lodging starting at 18,500 pesetas per

person. Some fellowships are available. The deadline for receipt of payment

and registration is Feb 28, 1995. These fees may be paid by bank transfer to:

Cyanobacterial Workshop, account no. 43-475-527621, Banco Herrero, Calle

Rioja, no. 7, E-41001 Sevilla, Spain (remembering to state your name on the

bank transfer for identification).

       Contact: Enrique Flores, Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y

       Fotosintesis Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC Facultad de Biologia

       Apartado 1113, E-41080 Sevilla Spain. Fax: +34-5-462 01 54,


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Ocean in Asilomar, California U.S.A., 21-25 July, 1995. Registration is U.S.

$50 and housing and meals begin at U.S.$225. Deadline for abstracts is May 1.

Deadline for registration is June 9. 

       Contact: Don Bryant, S-234 Frear Bldg., Dept. of Biochemistry and

       Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University

       Park, PA 16802. Tel: 814-865-1992, E-mail: DAB14@Psuvm.Psu.Edu

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


is the new descendent of the formerly biannual Nordic Symposia on Toxin-

producing Algae. The Congress will be held on the Danish island of Bornholm

in the Baltic on 20-24 August 1995. It is planned that the proceedings will

be published.

       Contact: Peter Henriksen, Dept. of Phycology, Botanical Institute,

       Щ. Farimagsgade 2 D, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, DENMARK.

       Tel: 45-35-32-22-90 or 45-35-32-22-99, Fax: 45-35-32-23-21,

       E-mail: PHenriks@Bot.Ku.Dk

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The 13th International Symposium on Cyanophyte Research will take place in

Rome 27 Aug to 3 Sep 1995. The Symposium will focus on taxonomy, extreme

environments, biodiversity, cyanobacterial associations with other

organisms, and ecophysiology. Registration is 200,000 lira. Meals and hotel

accommodations start at 900,000 lira for the nine day symposium.

       Contact: Patrizia Albertano, Department of Biology, University of

       Rome `Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca scientifica, 00133 Rome Italy.

       Tel: 39-6-72594345, Fax: 39-6-2023500,

       E-mail: Albertano@Tovvx1.Ccd.Utovrm.It

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The European Society for Photobiology will hold its 6th Congress in Cambridge

(Churchill College) from 2nd to 9th September 1995. The congress will have

special session on "Carotenoids in Photosynthesis and Medicine" and "Appli-

cation of protein engineering for the study of light reactions of oxygenic


       Contact: Paul Heelis, Faculty of Science, Health and Medical Studies,

       The North East Wales Institute, Plas Coch, Mold Road, Wrexham, Clwyd,

       LLI 2AW,UK. Fax: 44 (0) 1978 290008, E-mail: Heelisp@Newi.Ac.Uk

                         ****** Positions Offered ******


CONTACT: Bruce Greenberg, Dept. of Biology, University of Waterloo,

       Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, CANADA. Tel: 519-888-4567 x3209,

       Fax: 519-746-0614, E-mail: Greenber@Biology.Watstar.UWaterloo.CA

RESEARCH: (1) UV-B impact on plants, (2) Photoinduced toxicity of priority

       pollutants to plants. Both projects will be carried out at the

       biochemical and cellular levels, with effects on photosynthesis a major


SEND: CV and names of three references.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


CONTACT: James Yungel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight

       Facility in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) program.

       E-mail: Hoge@Osb1.Wff.Nasa.Gov or Yungel@Wff.Nasa.Wff

RESEARCH: Investigate optical properties of phycourobilin and

       phycoerythrobilin pigments contained in marine phytoplankton as it

       relates to remote detection of these pigments from laser excited

       fluorescence spectra and passive ocean color spectra.

SEND: Brief description of experience in related research. 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


CONTACT: H.Y. Yamamoto, HITAHR, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way,

       Gilmore 202 B, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA

RESEARCH: Biochemistry and mechanism of down regulation of PSII photochemical

       efficiency by xanthophyll-dependent non-photochemical chlorophyll

       fluorescence quenching.

REQUIREMENTS: Research experience using isolated chloroplast systems.

       Experience or knowledge of chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle,

       carbon-fixation, spectrophotometric methods and pigment-protein

       separations is highly desirable. Candidate should be self-motivated,

       able to work independently and accomplishment orientated. 

SUPPORT: One year with possible extension for another year.

SEND: CV, letter of application, two confidential letters of recommendation.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


CONTACT (before March 31): Carl Johnson c/o Susan Golden, Dept. of Biology,

       Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 U.S.A. 

       E-Mail: JohnsonC@Bio.Tamu.Edu

CONTACT (after March 31): Carl Johnson, Dept. of Biology, Box 1812-B,

       Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 U.S.A.

       E-Mail: JohnsonC@Vuctrvax.Bitnet

RESEARCH: Study molecular basis of circadian rhythmicity in cyanobacteria,

       using reporter strain to isolate, clone, and identify genes involved in

       the circadian clockwork [see Science 266:1233-1236 and Proc Natl Acad

       Science USA 90:5672-5676].

REQUIREMENTS: Training in current molecular genetic techniques and strong

       interest in circadian rhythms.

SEND: CV, summary of doctoral dissertation and current research interests, two

       letters of recommendation.

                                Positions Sought

POSITION SOUGHT: Post-doc or sabbatical replacement

CONTACT: S.A. Kulasooriya, Dept. of Botany, University of Peradeniya,

       Peradeniya, SRI LANKA. Fax: 94-8-32343

TEACHING EXPERIENCE: 28 years at University of Peradeniya. Lectures,

       laboratory classes, field classes in Introductory Botany, Plant

       Diversity, Mycology, Microbiology, Soil Biology, Biological Nitrogen

       Fixation, Soil Fertility.


       Ph.D., University of London (1971), G.E. Fogg and Peter Fay, advisors

             on "Heterocyst Differentiation and Nitrogen Fixation in Blue-green

             Algae". See Proc Royal Soc Lond (1972) 181:31-52. Nitrogen

             fixation in rice fields. See Ann Bot (1981) 47:31-52.

       Sabbatical leave at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI),

             examining rice field cyanobacteria, especially epiphytic strains.

             See Blue-green Algae and Rice, by PA Roger and SA Kulasooriya

             (1980), IRRI, Los Baдos, and Soil Sci Plant Nutr (1981) 27:19-27.

       Nitrogen fixation by Azolla-cyanobacterial symbiosis Biological nitrogen

             fixation and maintenance of soil fertility in sustainable

             ecosystems. See Plant Soil (1991) 135:297-302, Biol Fert Soil


SERVICE (abridged):

       Visiting consultant FAO/IAEA Division of Soil Fertility, Irrigation and

             Crop Production, Vienna, Austria

       UNDP Advisory Board on Nitrogen Fixation, IRRI

       Chairman, FAO Expert Consultation on Bio and Organic Fertilizers,





NANCY FEDERSPIEL has moved... You know all this? You heard long ago that she

left U. Idaho for a biotech outfit in California? Well, she's moved again.

This time to the Genome Center, with Ron Davis' group, at Stanford University.

She hopes someday to return to cyanos.

       Genome Center, Dept. of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford CA

       94305. E-mail: NFeder@Genome.Stanford.Edu

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

GOVINDJEE hasn't moved but electrons will have to travel a different path to

reach him. 

       E-mail: Govindje@aries.scs.uiuc.edu (note only one "e" at end) or

       (preferably) Gov@Uiuc.Edu. E-mail with enclosures can be sent to

       Govindjee@Powershare.Life.Uiuc.Edu. Fax: 217-244-7246 (office), and

       217-337-6196 (home).

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

P.K. SINGH has left the Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research to take a

position as Project Director of the National Facility for Blue-Green Algal

Collection [See announcement, this issue].

       National Facility for Blue-Green Algal Collection (Auditorium

       Complex), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012,

       INDIA. Tel: 91-011-578-8431, Fax: 91-011-575-2006,

       E-mail: Guest%Bic-iari@Dbt.Ernet.in

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

ZHAO JINDONG, after leaving Don Bryant's lab at Pennsylvania State

University, and resting for a while at Applied Biosystems in California,

now finds himself in a faculty position at Beijing University, still

interested in photosynthetic electron transport.

       Dept. of Plant Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing

       University, Beijing 100871, P.R.CHINA. Tel: 86-1-250-1855, Fax: 86-1-


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

                            Daniel I. Arnon 1910-1994

       Daniel I. Arnon died suddenly of cardiac arrest at the age of 84 on

Tuesday, December 20, 1994 in Berkeley, California. At the time of his death,

Arnon was an emeritus faculty member at the University of California at

Berkeley, where he had spent his entire academic career carrying out his

pioneering work on the biochemistry of photosynthesis. With his passing, an

era in the field of photosynthesis has ended. 

       In a series of historical papers in the mid-1950's, Arnon's Berkeley

group, which included M. B. Allen and F. R. Whatley, discovered that

chloroplasts were capable of synthesizing ATP in the light, in a process Arnon

called "photosynthetic phosphorylation" (photophosphorylation) to distinguish

it from oxidative phosphorylation. The first type of chloroplast

phosphorylation discovered, denoted "cyclic phosphorylation," produced only

ATP in the light. This discovery was followed by another revolutionary

finding--that both ATP and NADPH could be produced photochemically and that

their production was linked to the evolution of oxygen in a series of

reactions called "non-cyclic photophosphorylation.". As part of this series

of studies, isolated chloroplasts were found to be able to carry out complete

photosynthesis in the light, a finding that proved that "cell-free"

photosynthesis was possible .In an extensive series of papers with M. Losada

and A. Trebst that followed this work, the Arnon group then extended these

early observations by showing that the photophosphorylation reactions could

generate the ATP and NADPH required for CO2 assimilation. This was the first

demonstration that complete photosynthesis, the process central to life on our

planet, could be experimentally obtained outside a living cell. As a result

of this work, the field of photosynthesis had been permanently changed:  for

the first time it was realized that the chloroplast had the complete capacity

to carry out the reactions of photosynthesis, whereby light-energy is

converted into organic compounds. 

       The discovery of non-cyclic and cyclic phosphorylation led Arnon to

consider the mechanism of these processes. This resulted in K. Tagawa and

Arnon identifying and characterizing the iron-sulfur protein, chloroplast

ferredoxin in the early 1960s. Several other laboratories had been working

with this protein under other names but the Berkeley work clarified the role

of this protein in both the cyclic and non-cyclic pathways. Through their

study of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, the enzyme actually involved in NADPH

formation, M. Shin and Arnon were able to define the mechanism of NADP+

reduction, and in further work, to present their view that ferredoxin serves

as the natural catalyst of the cyclic pathway. In characterizing chloroplast

ferredoxin, Tagawa and Arnon had noted that this carrier had a midpoint redox

potential more electronegative than the NADPH/NADP+ couple, raising the

possibility that CO2 fixation might occur directly through the input of

electrons from reduced ferredoxin without utilizing the reduced pyridine

nucleotide system. This realization stimulated studies on photosynthetic

bacteria which led to the discovery of the reductive carboxylic acid cycle for

CO2 fixation in work with Mike Evans and Bob Buchanan in the mid-1960s. This

pathway is independent of the pathway previously demonstrated in higher plants

by Melvin Calvin, J. Bassham and A. Benson, also on the UC Berkeley campus. 

       The 1970s led Arnon and his group to consider mechanisms of electron

transfer in chloroplast photosynthesis. Based on his belief of the role of

non-cyclic and cyclic phosphorylation in chloroplasts, Arnon proposed a

mechanism for electron transfer the ran against the main current in the 

photosynthetic field:  that Photosystem I was involved only in the cyclic

pathway and only Photosystem II was linked to the non-cyclic pathway. This

view, held in modified form until his death, differed from the widely accepted

Z-scheme for electron transport in chloroplasts in which the two photosystems

cooperate in transferring electrons from water to NADP+. Up to the time of his

death, Arnon was still regularly coming to his office in the Department of

Plant Biology, writing extensively on his views on photosynthesis. 

       Arnon was recognized professionally both nationally and internationally.

He was a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences and academies in

Sweden, France and Germany. He was a Guggenheim Fellow with David Keilin in

Cambridge, England and Hugo Theorell at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm,

Sweden and a Fulbright Scholar with Otto Warburg in Berlin. In 1973 he was

awarded the National Medal of Science for "his fundamental research into the

mechanism of green plant utilization of light to produce chemical energy and

oxygen and for contributions to our understanding of plant nutrition." In

recent years we have seen the loss of major figures in our field:  Robin Hill,

Bessel Kok and Warren Butler. Equally as significant is the passing of Dan

Arnon. His contributions over an almost 50 year period on this field are


    Richard Malkin, Dept. of Plant Biology, University of California, Berkeley

(Editor's note: While all of us are indebted to Daniel Arnon for changing the

way we think about photosynthesis, some may not be aware that he also deserves

our remembrance every time we grow a strain in A&A (Allen & Arnon) medium).




              Theory Developed for Analysis of Polarization Spectra

      In a previous issue of CyanoNews (Volume 10, Number 1, February 1994)

ANDREY DEMIDOV reported on his work developing a new theory for analyzing the

polarization spectra of complex molecular systems with energy transfer between

molecules (chromophores). Molecules can have strongly overlapping spectra.

Demidov succeeded in deriving analytical formulae for determination of the

polarization spectra (at steady-state) and depolarization kinetics (ы- pulse

excitation) in cases of double- and triple-chromophore complexes. The formulae

were tested by applying them to C-phycocyanin subunits and monomers, and good

agreement with experimental data by Mimuro et al. [Biochim Biophys Acta (1986)

848:155] were found. The results of these investigations have been published

(see list of his references below under PHYCOBILISOMES and CAROTENOIDS).

     Demidov is now considering the case of higher aggregates - trimers,

hexamers, etc. His preliminary results are promising and can be used for

quantitative deconvolution of absorption and fluorescence spectra of

allophycocyanin trimers. Such deconvolution will provide individual spectra

of alpha and beta chromophores. Deconvolution involves absorption,

fluorescence, and polarization spectra, i.e. it is based on the spectroscopic



       He is looking for someone who may be interested in cooperation on this

matter. Cooperation can be in the form of work (preferably) in some particular

laboratory having necessary facilities and APC supplies, or in the form of

supplying the experimental data.

       Demidov can be reached c/o D Andrews, University of East Anglia, School

       of Chemistry, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ UK, or by E-mail at


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Plastocyanin Promotes Electron Transport in PC-less Strain

       Plastocyanin, a copper-bearing protein, is used by plants and most green

algae to donate electrons to Photosystem I. The protein is relatively rare in

cyanobacteria, which use cytochrome c553 instead as the PSI donor.

Synechococcus PCC 7942 is an example of a cyanobacterium that evidently lacks

plastocyanin and the gene, petE, that encodes it. DIRK GEERTS and others at

Utrecht, in collaboration with Hendrik Schubert and Hans Matthijs, took a petE

gene from a cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7937, that does use plastocyanin and

expressed it in Synechococcus, wondering whether the strain would make any

sense out of it at all. To their surprise, the foreign protein was readily

accepted by PSI, and electron flow through PSI was markedly enhanced.

       The petE gene from Anabaena was expressed from an inducible E. coli

promoter, Ptrc, thereby disconnecting transcription of the gene from its

normal regulation by the availability of copper. The gene product was

efficiently processed in Synechococcus and properly targeted to the thylakoid

lumen. Isolated thylakoid membranes from strains expressing petE showed up to

2.5-fold higher rates of electron transport than native membranes, and a

similar enhancement was evident in whole cells. 

       The activity of exogenous plastocyanin in Synechococcus may have

interesting implications regarding the mechanism by which electrons are

distributed between photosynthesis and respiration. Plastocyanin nearly

abolished the competition between the two systems. These and other results are

described in a recently published paper [Geerts et al. (1994) J Biol Chem


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

              Surprise Glycolipid Biosynthetic Genes in het Region

       The region of the Anabaena PCC 7120 chromosome near hetN has already

provided a few surprises for those interested in heterocyst differentiation,

for example genes that in multicopy induce unscheduled heterocyst

differentiation [Black et al (1994) J Bacteriol 176:2282-2292]. CHRIS BAUER

tells us that the region still has a few eye-openers left. Chris also noted

that a cosmid containing the hetN region affected heterocyst differentiation,

but what really caught his attention were three genes upstream from hetN: 

hglB, hglC, and hglD (for Heterocyst GlycoLipid).

       hglB has already been partially characterized. It contains domains for

acyl-carrier protein and NAD(P)H с-ketoacyl reductase similar to those found

in polyketide or fatty acid synthases. According to Chris' sequence, hglC

contains acyl/malonyl ACP transferase and с-keto-synthase domains, and hglD

(only partially sequenced) also contains a с-keto-synthase domain.

Inactivation of any of the three genes gave rise to a Fix- phenotype:

regularly spaced, ultrastructurally normal heterocysts (as judged by light

microscopy) incapable of nitrogen fixation. All three genes, and hetN as well,

are transcribed from 6 to 12 hours after nitrogen limitation, as seen by

Northern time-course blots. 

       These observations prompted a thin layer chromatography experiment to

check for the presence of heterocyst-specific glycolipid in mutants defective

in hglB, hglC, or hglD. It turns out that all three mutants fail to produce

the lipid, and Chris now believes that the products of these genes are

involved in glycolipid biosynthesis.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

                    Calcium Fluxes Can Energize Cyanobacteria

       Cyanobacteria have been isolated from fresh, brackish, salty, and

extremely saline waters, and many highly mineralized bodies of water are more

greatly enriched with Ca2+ or Mg2+ than with Na+ [Hammer UT (1986) Saline like

ecosystems of the world. W. Junk, Dordrecht, p. 126]. IGOR BROWN has been

inspired by two ideas regarding the earth's early environment to propose that

cyanobacteria living in calcium-enriched waters may use calcium fluxes to

couple bioenergetic reactions.

       Ancient bodies of water are postulated to have been alkaline with Ca2+

as the major cation [Ronov (1964) Geochem [Moscow] 8:715], and cyanobacteria

are thought to have been amongst their first inhabitants [Zarvazin (1993)

Microbiol [Moscow] 62:789]. If these two ideas were true, reasoned Brown, then

saturation by Ca2+ and Mg2+ would have prevented the generation of effective

levels of ■ц[H+] or ■ц[Na+]. On this basis, they have proposed that Ca2+ may

under some conditions play the role of coupling cation [Brown II (1994)

Biochem [Moscow] 8:715]. Gloeobacter violaceus living on limestone [Rippka

(1974) Arch Microbiol 100:419] was studied to test this hypothesis.

       Brown and Galina Gorbik previously showed that Na+ 

can  support  electrogenic  import  of extracellular H+ - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -byG. violaceus cells

from alkaline medium [Gorbik GP, Brown II (1994) Int Symp Photosynth Prokar.

Abstracts. Urbino, Italy. 1994. p.25]. Now they report that Ca2+ is able to

substitute for Na+ to support growth of the strain under alkaline conditions

as well as electrogenic import of extracellular protons. The optimal Ca2+

concentration for these phenomena is about 9 mM. G. violaceus is not able to

grow under alkaline conditions (pH >= 9) if any BG-11 medium salt containing

Na+ or Ca2+ is replaced by a similar K+-containing salt. Growth of the strain

is normal under alkaline conditions in standard BG-11 (approximately 20 mM


       On the basis of this and other data [Geisler M et al (1993) J Mol Biol

234:1284], Brown and Gorbik suggest that ■ц[Ca2+] may provide energetic coupling

in cyanobacterial membranes.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

                 New Extrinsic Proteins Found in Photosystem II

       SHEN JIAN-REN reports that his group has found two new extrinsic

proteins in purified cyanobacterial photosystem II particles, namely,

cytochrome c550 and a 12 kDa protein.  They have demonstrated that these two

extrinsic proteins are required to maintain maximal activity of oxygen

evolution in cyanobacterial photosystem II.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


The triennial International Symposium on Phototrophic Prokaryotes called to

the ancient Italian village of Urbino the usual collection of red, green, and

blue-green aficionados. The Symposium exhibited the most vigorous competition

(dance contest) and youngest convener (Luca Zannoni, age 8) in recent memory

but also boasted a variety of interesting talks and poster. The perspectives

below are intended to provide a flavor of the meeting; a complete summary of

all the varied high points could not possibly fit into a single newsletter.

If you want a fuller account of progress in cyanobacteriology, you may have

to wait until the IX International Symposium, to be held in 1997 in Vienna,


                          Antennae and Reaction Centers

       Much of interest was presented concerning antenna systems. Rowe and

Griffiths have isolated a gene encoding a protochlorophyllide reductase from

Phormidium laminosum. It will be interesting to see if this enzyme functions

as the light-induced reductase in cyanobacteria. Going slightly further

afield, Partensky and LaRoche showed that the N-terminus of the apoprotein of

the light-harvesting apparatus from the prochlorophyte Prochlorococcus is 82%

similar to the CP43' protein (encoded by isiA). The authors speculated that

Prochlorococcus could have descended from cyanobacterial ancestors and had

replaced the phycobilisome with a CP43'-like antenna which might have given

them an advantage for growth in iron-depleted oceanic areas. 

       For the noncyanobacterially inclined, Judy Shiozawa and Reiner Feick

rekindled the chlorosome debate by presenting evidence that proteins play an

important role in chlorosome structure in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Digestion

of purified chlorosomes by proteases produced distinct changes in the shape

of the chlorosomes. Katsiou and Tadros have cloned a new LH II gene family

from Rhodopseudomonas palustris which they have named рс[e] (bringing the total

number to five). The с[e] subunit is the same as the с[b] subunit, but the р[e] is

very different from the other р subunits. This may allow the formation of

complexes with different absorbance characteristics. Indeed, more than one

LH II can be detected in the ICM in vivo by spectroscopic analyses.

       An interesting development from Kjaer, Golbeck, and Scheller on green-

sulfur bacterial reaction centers was presented. They have isolated reaction

centers from Chlorobium vibrioforme with two intact Fe-S centers which

resemble the higher plant F[A] and F[B] clusters. The isolated reaction center

complex contains 6 polypeptides and supported photoreduction of NADP+ when

ferredoxin and FNR were added. Returning to cyanobacteria, Muhlenhoff, Bryant,

Zhao, and Setif presented data on a cyanobacterial PS I complex that had been

cross-linked with flavodoxin. Flavodoxin was covalently linked to the PsaC and

PsaD proteins and required the PsaE protein in order to bind in the proper

orientation. This cross-linked complex could not support electron transport

to FNR. However, flavodoxin could be functionally photoreduced from the

semi-quinone to the fully reduced form. Wim Vermaas presented comparisons

between heliobacterial and cyanobacterial reaction center complexes: an

evolutionary model in which PS I and II of cyanobacteria evolved from a

homodimeric reaction center, which probably resembled the heliobacterial

reaction center.

                               -- Wendy Schluchter


       Much work on microbial mat ecology has examined how nutrient

availability may influence species composition and distribution. In these

complex photosynthetic systems nutrient availability may only play part of the

story. Light as an ecological factor had been largely unstudied. Dick

Castenholz presented results of a recent examination of how UV and visible

light may influence survival strategies of various cyanobacterial groups. This

work along with similar studies of deeper-lying Chloroflexus species (pre-

sented by Beverly Pierson) is providing interesting new insights into the

structure of mat communities. It will be interesting in the future to see how

field-based studies such as these will dovetail with pure-culture biochemical

work on, for example, complementary chromatic adaptation. The role of sulfide

and its metabolism by various cyanobacterial species in the laboratory is

combined with ongoing detailed field work in the work of Rethmeier et al., to

likewise generate a comprehensive picture of the role of sulfide in affecting

cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity and distribution.

       Newly described species were the focus of several nice presentations.

A few that particularly caught my eye were: (1) a beautifully detailed study

of a red strain of Spirulina subsalsa from a freshwater lake (by Luisa

Tomaselli et al.) (2) the description of a Leptolyngbya spp. with an eye-spot

type structure by Patrizia Albertano and Maria Grilli Caiola, and (3) an

intriguing Phormidium sp. responsible for killing corals in the Florida Keys

which is currently being well-documented in situ utilizing microsensors for

making oxygen, sulfide and pH measurements in the field by Laurie

Richardson   New advances in taxonomy are being provided by the use of

molecular techniques. Research in this area, utilizing these new and still

developing technologies, is providing something of an explosion of new

information. Annick Wilmotte and Michael Herdman both presented good overviews

of what we can and cannot get out of the various phylogenetic tree schemes

available along with some important interpretation caveats. These techniques

are finally offering us the tools needed to clarify the confusing taxonomic

picture of the cyanobacteria that we all know and love.

       These taxonomic findings may also have large ecological implications.

One such example was new data on the group Microcoleus chthonoplastes which

is suggesting that this group maintains a high degree of genotypic and

phenotypic homology world-wide with important implications for a high degree

of specificity for their particular niche habitat.

       This meeting also provided a chance for many of us ecologically-inclined

souls to hear and see presentations on a somewhat bewildering array of

biochemical and molecular topics. In particular the series on reaction centers

were particularly interesting even if they sent the majority of ecologists out

looking for molecular-speak glossaries. Edification is good for the soul.

Especially in surroundings like the Toscany valley. In conclusion, many thanks

to the organizers. It was a great meeting!

                              -- Lee Prufert-Bebout

               Light Receptor and Signal Cascade in Cyanobacteria?

       The mechanisms by which cyanobacteria recognize changes in light quality

and intensity is thus far incompletely understood. Studies aimed at

understanding the signal transduction pathway linking light to light-regulated

behavior may proceed profitably down two parallel tracks: analysis of

light-regulated genes and comparative studies of photoreceptors.

       Susan Golden described the transcriptional regulation of the psbA genes

of Synechococcus PCC 7942, encoding the D1 proteins of photosystem II. It is

very interesting that the transcription of a psbA gene is regulated by blue

light signal. The cis element for the blue light response has been

provisionally identified using many mutants carrying deletions in the 5'

upstream region of the psbA genes. The blue light signal is very likely to be

recognized by a specific photoreceptor or photoreceptors in cyanobacterial

cells. A mutant defective in the blue light response might provide a clue as

to the nature of the cyanobacterial blue light receptor. Franck Chauvat

identified sequence elements common to light-regulated promoters of

Synechocystis PCC 6803.   The mechanisms of signal transduction of light will

be gradually solved by the isolation of light-regulated genes and genetic

studies of mutants defective in the regulation of their expression by light.

Meanwhile, a direct approach to defining the associated photoreceptors have

been producing interesting insights. W.D. Hoff presented a photoreceptor of

halophilic purple bacteria. They purified the photoactive yellow protein (PYP)

and determined the molecular structure of PYP. A photocycle of PYP is similar

to that of rhodopsin. However, the chromophore of PYP is not a retinal. The

chromophore is surrounded by the apoprotein, and PYP associates with the

membrane. The structure of PYP is very different from that of rhodopsin. 

       Hans Matthijs suggested that a rhodopsin-like receptor acts as a sensor

for complementary chromatic adaptation of the cyanobacterium, Fremyella

diplosiphon (Calothrix). They showed that the cyanobacterium contains a

retinal.  It should be proven whether a photoreceptor homologous to PYP can

be found in cyanobacteria or whether cyanobacteria generally contain a

retinal. However, it is likely that cyanobacteria contain a photoreceptor

similar to the well-known photoreceptors.

                               -- Toshio Sakamoto

                           Cyanobacterial Development

       We are coming closer to discovering how heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria

determine the frequency and spacing of heterocysts along a filament. The

results from Jeff Elhai's poster imply that the determining factor for the

initiation of heterocyst development may reside in individual cells and not

signals from adjacent cells in a filament. He found that long filaments of

Anabaena containing luxAB driven by the hetR promoter and filaments sonicated

to single cells both expressed the same level of luciferase activity upon

induction by nitrogen deprivation. Consistent with this result, an EM survey

showed that a single-cell mutant of the same strain responds quite

inhomogeneously to nitrogen starvation: only about 5% of its cells produce

heterocyst-specific polysaccharide. 

       From the results of Peter Rowell et al. one can begin to build a model

to explain Elhai's results. They found that formazan deposition in A.

cylindrica filaments incubated with MTT was localized to cell poles and

distributed in a pattern along a filament at potential sites of heterocyst

development. Thus an apparent differential accumulation of polarly localized

respiratory electron transport, possibly laid down as a function of pole age,

may have a role in determining which cells are destined to become heterocysts.

At sites where intercalary heterocysts will form, two vegetative cells with

nearly equal amounts of formazan deposition are found; these two cells must

somehow communicate to decide which will generate the daughter cell that

differentiates into a heterocyst. Jack Meeks noted that in many Fox- mutants

of Nostoc ATCC 29133 intercalary heterocyst doublets are common, possibly

because of a defect in this cell to cell communication.

       Of course akinetes exhibit polarity as well. Sili and Vincenzini

presented some beautiful micrographs showing polar germination of Cyanospira


       Bill Buikema and Bob Haselkorn reported obtaining up to 15% heterocysts

along a filament by overexpressing hetR transcription in Anabaena PCC 7120

containing a plasmid 

with  hetR  behind the copper inducible petE promoter. - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Itwill be interesting to

see if HetR is a point of control for increasing the frequency of heterocysts

in symbiotic systems. Bill Buikema is investigating the green fluorescent

protein (GFP) as an alternative reporter to luxAB in cyanobacteria. Expression

of GFP is easy to detect and has advantages over luxAB in not requiring a

substrate or oxygen for activity but, unlike luxAB, it is apparently toxic at

high concentrations. As was repeatedly stressed, luxAB can serve as a useful

reporter even without a $140,000 photometer.

       Several different sized transcripts per gene, whether due to multiple

promoters or processing of larger transcripts, appears to be a common theme

in cyanobacteria. For example, Mike Summers reported 16 different transcripts

within the 4 gene zwf region, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. As

the case with most cyanobacterial transcripts, it is unknown how the levels

of the specific mRNAs are regulated. In a poster, Martin Mulligan et al.

showed the ubiquity of RNA-binding proteins in cyanobacteria. These proteins

are known to have a variety of functions in eukaryotes (including in

chloroplasts, where post-transcriptional regulation predominate).

       Regarding hormogonia differentiation, I reported that in Nostoc

ATCC 29133, just 2 bases upstream from a gene involved in decreasing

sensitivity to a hormogonia inducing factor, there is a gene with homology to

the same family of NAD(P)H-oxidoreductases that includes hetN. Perhaps

proteins of this family are of use in the production or modification of

signals affecting cyanobacterial differentiation. In two posters from Dave

Adams' lab, S. Babic reported the isolation and initial characterization of

mutants in hormogonium formation and H. Doherty reported cloning ftsZ from A.

7120; future work will examine whether ftsZ expression is regulated early in

hormogonium development. Doug Campbell has found that hormogonium

differentiation in Calothrix is favored by signals that inhibit heterocyst

formation and vice versa. The role, if any, of the PII protein (encoded by

glnB) in a hormogonia/heterocyst differentiation-signaling pathway is still

under investigation.

                                  --Mike Cohen





Neilan BA, Cox PT, Hawkins PR, Goodman AE (1994). 16S Ribosomal RNA gene

       sequence and phylogeny of toxic Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria). DNA

       Sequence 4:333-337

Schlosser UG (1994). SAG - Sammlung von Algenkulturen at the University of

       Gottingen - Catalogue of Strains 1994. Bot Acta 107:113-186

Skulberg OM, Cronberg G (1994). The 12th Symposium of the International

       Association for Cyanophyte Research. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 105,

       Algological Studies 75:1-9

Alber BE, Ferry JG (1994). A carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon

       Methanosarcina thermophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:6909-6913

Lazcano A, Miller SL (1994). How long did it take for life to begin and evolve

       to cyanobacteria? J Mol Evol 39:546-554

Luttke A, Maier TL, Schenk HEA (1994). Codon usage adaptation in the

       ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase of Cyanophora paradoxa upon

       translocation from cyanoplast to nucleus. Gene 146:123-127

Nelissen B, Wilmotte A, Neefs JM, Dewachter R (1994). Phylogenetic

       relationships among filamentous helical cyanobacteria investigated on

       the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Syst Appl

       Microbiol 17:206-210

Nimura K, Yoshikawa H, Takahashi H (1994). Sequence analysis of the third dnaK

       homolog gene in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Biochem Biophys Res Commun


Nimura K, Yoshikawa H, Takahashi H (1994). Identification of dnaK multigene

       family in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Biochem Biophys Res Commun


Schopf JW (1994). Disparate rates, differing fates: Tempo and mode of

       evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic. Proc Natl

       Acad Sci USA 91:6735-6742

Shanklin J, Whittle E, Fox BG (1994). Eight histidine residues are

       catalytically essential in a membrane-associated iron enzyme, stearoyl-

       CoA desaturase, and are conserved in alkane hydroxylase and xylene

       monooxygenase. Biochemistry 33:12787-12794

Simpson GG, Clark G, Brown JWS (1994). Isolation of a maize cDNA encoding a

       protein with extensive similarity to an inhibitor of protein kinase C

       and a cyanobacterial open reading frame. Biochim Biophys Acta 1222:306-


Vermaas WFJ (1994). Evolution of heliobacteria: Implications for

       photosynthetic reaction center complexes. Photosynth Res 41:285-294

Wilmotte A, Neefs JM, Dewachter R (1994). Evolutionary affiliation of the

       marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp strain NIBB 1067,

       derived by 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis. Microbiology Uk 140(Part


                       ****** ECOLOGY and SYMBIOSIS ******

Cullen JJ, Neale PJ (1994). Ultraviolet radiation, ozone depletion, and marine

       photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 39:303-320

Geider RJ, Laroche J (1994). The role of iron in phytoplankton photosynthesis,

       and the potential for iron-limitation of primary productivity in the

       sea. Photosynth Res 39:275-301

Glibert PM, Bronk DA (1994). Release of dissolved organic nitrogen by marine

       diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Trichodesmium spp. Appl Environ Microbiol


Hammouda OHE, Elsheekh MM (1994). Response of freshwater phytoplanktonic algae

       Chlorella kessleri and Synechocystis PCC 6803 to anthelmintic activity

       of the wild Egyptian plant Calendula micrantha officinalis  . Arch

       Environ Contam Toxicol 27:406-409

Hayashi NR, Peerapornpisal Y, Nishihara H, Ishii M, Igarashi Y, Kodama T

       (1994). Isolation and cultivation of thermophilic cyanobacteria from hot

       springs of Northern Thailand. J Ferment Bioeng 78:179-181

Islam MS, Miah MA, Hasan MK, Sack RB, Albert MJ (1994). Detection of non-

       culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 associated with a cyanobacterium from an

       aquatic environment in Bangladesh. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88:298-299

Lange OL, Budel B, Zellner H, Zotz G, Meyer A (1994). Field measurements of

       water relations and CO2 exchange of the tropical, cyanobacterial

       basidiolichen Dictyonema glabratum in a Panamanian rainforest. Bot Acta


Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1994). Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic

       transformation in the environment. Microbiol Rev 58:563-602

Palenik B (1994). Cyanobacterial community structure as seen from RNA

       polymerase gene sequence analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3212-3219

Risatti JB, Capman WC, Stahl DA (1994). Community structure of a microbial

       mat: The phylogenetic dimension. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:10173-10177

Suttle CA, Chan AM (1994). Dynamics and distribution of cyanophages and their

       effect on marine Synechococcus spp. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3167-3174

Ward DM, Panke S, Kloppel KD, Christ R, Fredrickson H (1994). Complex polar

       lipids of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat and its cultivated

       inhabitants. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3358-3367

Zavarzin GA, Gerasimenko LM, Zhilina TN (1993). Cyanobacterial Communities in

       Hypersaline Lagoons of Lake Sivash. Microbiology-Engl Tr 62:645-652

Canini A, Brandizzi F, Caiola MG (1994). Localization of calcium in the 

       cyanobiont and gonidial zone of Cycas revoluta Thunb by microelectrodes,

       chlorotetracycline, electron spectroscopic imaging and electron energy

       loss spectroscopy. Protoplasma 179:151-157

Gantar M, Rowell P, Kerby NW, Sutherland IW (1995). Role of extracellular

       polysaccharide in the colonization of wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) roots

       by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Biol Fertil Soils 19:41-48

Hill DJ (1994). The nature of the symbiotic relationship in lichens. Endeavour


Leisner JMR, Bilger W, Czygan FC, Lange OL (1994). Light exposure and the

       composition of lipophilous carotenoids in cyanobacterial lichens. J

       Plant Physiol 143:514-519

Man HM, Silvester WB (1994). Interactions of H2 and carbon metabolism in

       moderating nitrogenase activity of the Gunnera/Nostoc symbiosis. Arch

       Microbiol 161:442-444

Palmqvist K, Samuelsson G, Badger MR (1994). Photobiont-related differences

       in carbon acquisition among green-algal lichens. Planta 195:70-79

Schussler A, Mollenhauer D, Schnepf E, Kluge M (1994). Geosiphon pyriforme,

       an Endosymbiotic Association of Fungus and Cyanobacteria - The Spore

       Structure Resembles That of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi. Bot Acta


                   ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES ******

Bagchi SN, Marwah JB (1994). Production of an algicide from cyanobacterium

       Fischerella species which inhibits photosynthetic electron transport.

       Microbios 79:187-193

Boukouvalas J, Maltais F, Lachance N (1994). Furanolate-based strategy for

       sequential 2,3,4-trisubstitution of butenolide: Total synthesis of

       nostoclides I and II. Tetrahedron Lett 35:7897-7900

Bruno M, Barbini DA, Pierdominici E, Serse AP, Ioppolo A (1994). Anatoxin-A

       and a Previously Unknown Toxin in Anabaena planctonica from Blooms Found

       in Lake Mulargia (Italy). Toxicon 32:369-373

Esch H, Hundeshagen B, Schneiderpoetsch H, Bothe H (1994). Demonstration of

       abscisic acid in spores and hyphae of the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus

       Glomus and in the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Plant

       Sci 99:9-16

Hemscheidt T, Puglisi MP, Larsen LK, Patterson GML, Moore RE, Rios JL, Clardy

       J (1994). Structure and biosynthesis of borophycin, a new boeseken

       complex of boric acid from a marine strain of the blue-green alga Nostoc

       linckia. J Org Chem 59:3467-3471

Kobayashi A, Kajiyama SI, Inawaka K, Kanzaki H, Kawazu K (1994). Nostodione

       A, a novel mitotic spindle poison from a blue-green alga Nostoc commune.

       Z Naturforsch C 49:464-470

Lawton LA, Edwards C, Codd GA (1994). Extraction and high-performance liquid

       chromatographic method for the determination of microcystins in raw and

       treated waters. Analyst 119:1525-1530

Matsuura F, Hamada Y, Shioiri T (1994). Total synthesis of microginin, an

       angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory pentapeptide from the blue-

       green alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron 50:11303-11314

Mori Y, Kawajiri N, Furukawa H, Moore RE (1994). Synthesis and absolute

       configuration of an isotactic nonamethoxy-1-pentacosene from the blue-

       green alga Scytonema ocellatum. Tetrahedron 50:11133-11142

Paik SG, Carmeli S, Cullingham J, Moore RE, Patterson GML, Tius MA (1994). 

       Mirabimide E, an unusual N-acylpyrrolinone from the blue-green alga

       Scytonema mirabile: Structure determination and synthesis. J Am Chem Soc


Pergament I, Carmeli S (1994). Schizotrin A; A novel antimicrobial cyclic

       peptide from a Cyanobacterium. Tetrahedron Lett 35:8473-8476

Pyo D, Lee M (1994). Chemical analysis of microcystins RR and LR in

       cyanobacterium using a prepacked cyano cartridge. Chromatographia


Quick J, Saha B (1994). Protein kinase C modulators. Indolactams .2.

       Alkylation of 4-nitroindole by Grignard reagents. Synthesis of

       (-)-7-octylindolactam V. Tetrahedron Lett 35:8553-8556

Rudolph Bohner S, Mierke DF, Moroder L (1994). Molecular structure of the

       cyanobacterial tumor-promoting microcystins. FEBS Lett 349:319-323

Skulberg OM, Underdal B, Utkilen H (1994). Toxic waterblooms with cyanophytes

       in Norway - current knowledge. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 105, Algological

       Studies 75:279-289

Stratmann K, Belli J, Jensen CM, Moore RE, Patterson GML (1994). Aulosirazole,

       a novel solid tumor selective cytotoxin from the blue-green alga

       Aulosira fertilissima. J Org Chem 59:6279-6281

Stratmann K, Moore RE, Bonjouklian R, Deeter JB, Patterson GML, Shaffer S,

       Smith CD, Smitka TA (1994). Welwitindolinones, unusual alkaloids from

       the blue-green algae Hapalosiphon welwitschii and Westiella intricata.

       Relationship to fischerindoles and hapalindoles. J Am Chem Soc 116:9935-


Trimurtulu G, Ohtani I, Patterson GML, Moore RE, Corbett TH,Valeriote FA,

       Demchik L (1994). Total structures ofcryptophycins, potent antitumor

       depsipeptides from the blue-green alga Nostoc sp. strain GSV 224. J Am

       Chem Soc 116:4729-4737

Tsuji K, Naito S, Kondo F, Watanabe MF, Suzuki S, Nakazawa H, Suzuki M,

       Shimada T, Harada K (1994). A clean-up method for analysis of trace

       amounts of microcystins in lake water. Toxicon 32:1251-1259

       ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES (Physiological Effects) ******

Carbis CR, Simons JA, Mitchell GF, Anderson JW, McCauley I (1994). A

       biochemical profile for predicting the chronic exposure of sheep to

       Microcystis aeruginosa, an hepatotoxic species of blue-green alga. Res

       Vet Sci 57:310-316

Honkanan RE, Codispoti BA, Tse K, Boynton AL (1994). Characterization of

       Natural Toxins with Inhibitory Activity Against Serine/Threonine Protein

       Phosphatases. Toxicon 32:339-350

Li M, Damuni Z (1994). Okadaic acid and microcystin-LR directly inhibit the

       methylation of protein phosphatase 2A by its specific methyltransferase.

       Biochem Biophys Res Commun 202:1023-1030

Lu CB, Kumar R, Akita T, Joyner RW (1994). Developmental changes in the

       actions of phosphatase inhibitors on calcium current of rabbit heart

       cells. Pflugers Arch-Eur J Physiol 427:389-398

McDougall RJ, Tandy MW (1993). Coccidian/Cyanobacterium-Like Bodies as a Cause

       of Diarrhea in Australia. Pathology 25:375-378

Nishiwaki R, Ohta T, Sueoka E, Suganuma M, Harada K, Watanabe MF, Fujiki H

       (1994). Two significant aspects of microcystin-LR: Specific binding and

       liver specificity. Cancer Lett 83:283-289

Runnegar MT, Kong SM, Zhong YZ, Ge JL, Lu SC (1994). The role of glutathione 

       in the toxicity of a novel cyanobacterial alkaloid cylindrospermopsin

       in cultured rat hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:235-241

Sakagami M, Muratake H, Natsume M (1994). Preparation of alkyl-substituted

       indoles in the benzene portion .12. enantiospecific synthesis of

       hapalindole O. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 42:1393-1398

Smith CD, Prinsep MR, Caplan FR, Moore RE, Patterson GML (1994). Reversal of

       multiple drug resistance by tolyporphin, a novel cyanobacterial natural

       product. Oncol Res 6:211-218

Terao K, Ohmori S, Igarashi K, Ohtani I, Watanabe MF, Harada KI, Ito E,

       Watanabe M (1994). Electron microscopic studies on experimental

       poisoning in mice induced by cylindrospermopsin isolated from blue-green

       alga Umezakia natans. Toxicon 32:833-843

Yamada N, Murakami N, Kawamura N, Sakakibara J (1994). Mechanism of an early

       lysis by fatty acids from axenic Phormidium tenue (musty odor-producing

       cyanobacterium) and its growth prolongation by bacteria. Biol Pharm Bull


Zhang ZJ, Zhao SM, Long FX, Zhang LF, Bai G, Shima H, Nagao M, Lee EYC (1994).

       A mutant of protein phosphatase-1 that exhibits altered toxin

       sensitivity. J Biol Chem 269:16997-17000

                            ****** PHYSIOLOGY ******

Agrawal SC (1994). Some chemical and biological properties of culture filtrate

       of Nostochopsis lobatus. Folia Microbiol Prague 39:133-136

Aiba H, Mizuno T (1994). A novel gene whose expression is regulated by the

       response-regulator, SphR, in response to phosphate limitation in

       Synechococcus species PCC 7942. Mol Microbiol 13:25-34

Avendano MD, Valiente EF (1994). Effect of sodium on phosphate uptake in

       unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria. Plant Cell Physiol 35:1097-


Berkelman T, Garretengele P, Hoffman NE (1994). The pacL gene of Synechococcus

       sp. strain PCC 7942 encodes a Ca2+-transporting ATPase. J Bacteriol


Falkner G, Wagner F, Falkner R (1994). The relation between phosphate uptake

       and growth of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. C R Acad Sci [III]


Goncharova IG, Gerasimenko LM (1993). Dynamics of Inorganic Phosphorus

       Consumption by Microcoleus chthonoplastes Cells. Microbiology-Engl Tr


Mann NH, Scanlan DJ (1994). The SphX protein of Synechococcus species PCC 7942

       belongs to a family of phosphate-binding proteins. Mol Microbiol 14:595-


Singh SS, Tiwari SP, Abraham J, Rai S, Rai AK (1994). Magnetobiological

       effects on a cyanobacterium, Anabaena doliolum. Electro Magnetobiol


                                CIRCADIAN RHYTHM

Brody S (1994). Circadian rhythms in microorganisms. Res Microbiol 145:499-501

Chou WM, Chou HM, Yuan HF, Shaw JF, Huang TC (1994). The aerobic nitrogen-

       fixing Synechococcus RF-1 containing uncommon polyglucan granules and

       multiple forms of alpha-amylase. Curr Microbiol 29:201-205

Chow TJ, Tabita FR (1994). Reciprocal light-dark transcriptional control of

       nif and rbc expression and light-dependent posttranslational control of

       nitrogenase activity in Synechococcus sp. strain RF-1. J Bacteriol


Huang TC, Pen SY (1994). Induction of a circadian rhythm in Synechococcus RF-1

       while the cells are in a ''suspended state''. Planta 194:436-438

Ikemoto H, Mitsui A (1994). Diazotrophic synchronous growth of a marine

       unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp strain Miami BG 043511,

       under aerobic and microaerobic/anaerobic conditions. Microbiology Uk

       140(Part 8):2153-2158

Kondo T, Tsinoremas NF, Golden SS, Johnson CH, Kutsuna S, Ishiura M (1994).

       Circadian clock mutants of cyanobacteria. Science 266:1233-1236

Kumazawa S, Mitsui A (1994). Efficient hydrogen photoproduction by

       synchronously grown cells of a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp

       Miami BG 043511, under high cell density conditions. Biotechnol Bioeng


Mitsui A, Suda S (1995). Alternative and cyclic appearance of H-2 and O-2

       photoproduction activities under non-growing conditions in an aerobic

       nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Curr

       Microbiol 30:1-6

Rojek R, Harms C, Hebeler M, Grimme LH (1994). Cyclic variations of

       photosynthetic activity under nitrogen fixing conditions in

       Synechococcus RF-1. Arch Microbiol 162:80-84

Sode K, Hatano N, Tatara M (1994). Pseudo-continuous culture of marine

       recombinant cyanobacteria under a light dark cycle. Biotechnol Lett


                               MEMBRANES & LIPIDS

Gombos Z, Wada H, Murata N (1994). The recovery of photosynthesis from low-

       temperature photoinhibition is accelerated by the unsaturation of

       membrane lipids: A mechanism of chilling tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci

       USA 91:8787-8791

Hitz WD, Carlson TJ, Booth JR, Kinney AJ, Stecca KL, Yadav NS (1994). Cloning

       of a higher-plant plastid omega-6 fatty acid desaturase cDNA and its

       expression in a cyanobacterium. Plant Physiol 105:635-641

Los DA, Murata N (1994). Low-temperature induced accumulation of the

       desaturase gene transcript in Synechocystis PCC 6803 results from both

       acceleration of transcription and increase in mRNA stability. Russ J

       Plant Physiol 41:147-151 ([Engl])

Norling B, Mirzakhanian V, Nilsson F, Morre DJ, Andersson B (1994).

       Subfractional Analysis of Cyanobacterial Membranes and Isolation of

       Plasma Membranes by Aqueous Polymer 2-Phase Partitioning. Anal Biochem


Quoc KP, Dubacq JP, Demandre C, Mazliak P (1994). Comparative effects of

       exogenous fatty acid supplementations on the lipids from the

       cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Plant Physiol Biochem 32:501-509

Sakamoto T, Los DA, Higashi S, Wada H, Nishida I, Ohmori M, Murata N (1994).

       Cloning of omega 3 desaturase from cyanobacteria and its use in altering

       the degree of membrane-lipid unsaturation. Plant Mol Biol 26:249-263

Sakamoto T, Wada H, Nishida I, Ohmori M, Murata N (1994). Delta 9 acyl-lipid

       desaturases of cyanobacteria -Molecular cloning and substrate

       specificities in terms of fatty acids, sn-positions, and polar head

       groups. J Biol Chem 269:25576-25580

Sato N (1994). Effect of Exogenous Glucose on the Accumulation of Monoglucosyl

       Diacylglycerol in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC -6803. Plant

       Physiol Biochem 32:121-126

Stocker A, Netscher T, Ruttimann A, Muller RK, Schneider H, Todaro LJ, Derungs

       G, Woggon WD (1994). The reaction mechanism of chromanol-ring formation

       catalyzed by tocopherol cyclase from Anabaena variabilis KUTZING

       (Cyanobacteria). Helv Chim Acta 77:1721-1737

Xu CH, Nejidat A, Belkin S, Boussiba S (1994). Isolation and characterization

       of the plasma membrane by two-phase partitioning from the alkalophilic

       cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Plant Cell Physiol 35:737-741

                                STRESS RESPONSES

Apte SK, Alahari A (1994). Role of alkali cations (K+ and Na+) in

       cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation and adaptation to salinity and osmotic

       stress. Indian J Biochem Biophys 31:267-279

Dwivedi A, Srinivas UK, Singh HN, Kumar HD (1994). Regulatory effect of

       external pH on the intracellular pH in alkalophilic cyanobacteria

       Microcystis aeruginosa and Hapalosiphon welwitschii. J Gen Appl

       Microbiol Tokyo 40:261-263

Galinski EA, Truper HG (1994). Microbial behaviour in salt-stressed

       ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 15:95-108

Hagemann M, Erdmann N (1994). Activation and pathway of glucosylglycerol

       synthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Microbiology

       Uk 140(Part 6):1427-1431

Iyer V, Fernandes T, Apte SK (1994). A role for osmotic stress-induced

       proteins in the osmotolerance of a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium,

       Anabaena sp strain L-31. J Bacteriol 176:5868-5870

Onana B, Jeanjean R, Joset F (1994). Gene stpA involved in the establishement

       of salt tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Russ J

       Plant Physiol 41:152-159 ([Engl])

Potts M (1994). Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiol Rev 58:755-805

Rodriguez R, Guerrero MG, Lara C (1994). Mechanism of sodium/nitrate symport

       in Anacystis nidulans R2. Biochim Biophys Acta 1187:250-254

Bender J, Rodriguez Eaton S, Ekanemesang UM, Phillips P (1994).

       Characterization of metal-binding bioflocculants produced by the

       cyanobacterial component of mixed microbial mats. Appl Environ Microbiol


Mallick N, Pandey S, Rai LC (1994). Involvement of a cadmium-induced low

       molecular weight protein in regulating cadmium toxicity in the

       diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. Biometals 7:299-304

Mallick N, Rai LC (1994). Kinetic Studies of Mineral Uptake and Enzyme

       Activities of Anabaena doliolum Under Metal Stress. J Gen Appl Microbiol

       Tokyo 40:123-133

Takeshima Y, Takatsugu N, Sugiura M, Hagiwara H (1994). High-level expression

       of human superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans

       6301. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:9685-9689

Webb R, Troyan T, Sherman D, Sherman LA (1994). MapA, an iron-regulated,

       cytoplasmic membrane protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.

       strain PCC 7942. J Bacteriol 176:4906-4913

                               NITROGEN METABOLISM

Capone DG, Ferrier MD, Carpenter EJ (1994). Amino acid cycling in colonies of

       the planktonic marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii. Appl

       Environ Microbiol 60:3989-3995

Dallachiesa M, Mayers SR, Maskell DJ, Nixon PJ, Barber J (1994). An aroA

       homologue from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Gene 144:145-146

Floriano B, Herrero A, Flores E (1994). Analysis of expression of the argC and

       argD genes in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J

       Bacteriol 176:6397-6401

Luque I, Flores E, Herrero A (1994). Molecular mechanism for the operation of

       nitrogen control in cyanobacteria. EMBO J 13:2862-2869 ([Corrected


Mahasneh IA, Mishra AK, Tiwari DN (1994). Transposon-induced mutants of the

       cyanobacterium Anabaena sp PCC 7120 capable of ammonia liberation.

       Biotechnol Lett 16:765-770

Merritt MV, Sid SS, Mesh L, Allen MM (1994). Variations in the amino acid

       composition of cyanophycin in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

       PCC 6308 as a function of growth conditions. Arch Microbiol 162:158-166

Sawa Y, Tani M, Murata K, Shibata H, Ochiai H (1994). Purification and

       characterization of alanine dehydrogenase from a cyanobacterium,

       Phormidium lapideum. J Biochem Tokyo 116:995-1000

Shakila TM, Rao NS, Bagchi SN (1994). Oxidative and hydrolytic transformations

       of hydroxylamine compounds in cyanobacteria. Arch Microbiol 162:282-285

Singh S (1994). Inorganic nitrogen control of methylammonium (ammonium)

       transport activity in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. Ind

       J Exp Biol 32:427-430

Singh S, Bisen PS (1994). Evidence for the role of intracellular glutamine

       level in the regulation of glutamine uptake in the cyanobacterium

       Anabaena 7120. Curr Microbiol 29:319-322

Singh S, Bisen PS (1994). Inhibition of nitrite reductase and urease by

       arginine and proline in the cyanobacterium Anabaena cycadeae. J Basic

       Microbiol 34:401-404

Singh Y, Kumar HD (1994). Physiological characterization of chlorate-resistant

       mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina major. J Basic Microbiol 34:345-


Stevens SE, Smith RL (1994). Isolation and characterization of five genotypic

       mutants of chlorate-resistant cyanobacteria unable to utilize nitrate.

       Curr Microbiol 29:311-318


Angeloni SV, Potts M (1994). Analysis of the sequences within and flanking the

       cyanoglobin-encoding gene, glbN, of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

       UTEX 584. Gene 146:133-134

Bar E, Telor E (1994). Effect of light and oxygen on nitrogenase activity and

       dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) content in Azolla-Anabaena

       association. J Plant Physiol 144:438-443

Beesley CE, Smith RJ, Temple SJ, Lea PJ (1994). Cloning and nucleotide

       sequence of the gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) from the

       cyanobacterium Nostoc 6720. Biochim Biophys Acta 1219:548-550

Brass S, Westermann M, Ernst A, Reuter W, Wehrmeyer W, Boger P (1994).

       Utilization of light for nitrogen fixation by a new Synechocystis strain

       is extended by its low photosynthetic efficiency. Appl Environ Microbiol


Du CG, Reade JPH, Rogers LJ, Gallon JR (1994). Dinitrogenase reductase ADP-

       ribosyl transferase and dinitrogenase reductase activating

       glycohydrolase in Gloeothece. Biochem Soc Trans 22:S332

Janson S, Carpenter EJ, Bergman B (1994). Compartmentalisation of nitrogenase

       in a non-heterocystous cyanobacterium: Trichodesmium contortum. FEMS

       Microbiol Lett 118:9-14

Misra HS, Tuli R (1994). Uncoupling of photosystems during light dependent

       dinitrogen fixation by a non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonema

       boryanum. Indian J Biochem Biophys 31:310-314

Rodriguez R, Garcia Gonzalez M, Guerrero MG, Lara C (1994). Ammonium-sensitive

       protein kinase activity in plasma membranes of the cyanobacterium

       Anacystis nidulans. FEBS Lett 350:19-23

Sanzalferez S, del Campo FF (1994). Relationship between nitrogen fixation and

       nitrate metabolism in the Nodularia strains M1 and M2. Planta 194:339-


Hahn D, Kuck U (1994). Biochemical and molecular genetic basis of

       hydrogenases. Process Biochem 29:633-644

Luo YH, Mitsui A (1994). Hydrogen production from organic substrates in an

       aerobic nitrogen-fixing marine unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

       sp strain Miami BG 043511. Biotechnol Bioeng 44:1255-1260

Fernandez-Piдas F, Leganes F, Wolk CP (1994). A third genetic focus required

       for the formation of heterocysts in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J

       Bacteriol 176:5277-5283

Frias JE, Flores E, Herrero A (1994). Requirement of the regulatory protein

       NtcA for the expression of nitrogen assimilation and heterocyst

       development genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Mol

       Microbiol 14:823-832

Leganes F (1994). Genetic evidence that hepA gene is involved in the normal

       deposition of the envelope of both heterocysts and akinetes in Anabaena

       variabilis ATCC 29413. FEMS Microbiol Lett 123:63-67

Sili C, Ena A, Materassi R, Vincenzini M (1994). Germination of desiccated

       aged akinetes of alkaliphilic cyanobacteria. Arch Microbiol 162:20-25

Singh S, Bisen PS (1994). Role of glutamine synthetase activity in the urea

       regulation of heterocyst and nitrogenase formation in the cyanobacterium

       Anabaena cycadeae. J Basic Microbiol 34:191-195

Wei TF, Ramasubramanian TS, Golden JW (1994). Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

       ntcA gene required for growth on nitrate and heterocyst development. J

       Bacteriol 176:4473-4482  CARBON METABOLISM

Badger MR, Price GD (1994). The role of carbonic anhydrase in photosynthesis.

       Annu Rev Plant Physiol:45369-45392

Beuf L, Bedu S, Durand MC, Joset F (1994). A protein involved in co-ordinated

       regulation of inorganic carbon and glucose metabolism in the facultative

       photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plant Mol Biol


Charng YY, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (1994). Structure-function relationships of

       cyanobacterial ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase - Site-directed mutagenesis

       and chemical modification of the activator-binding sites of ADP-glucose

       pyrophosphorylase from Anabaena PCC 7120. J Biol Chem 269:24107-24113

Haining RL, McFadden BA (1994). Active-site histidines in recombinant

       cyanobacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase examined

       by site-directed mutagenesis. Photosynth Res 41:349-356

Li LA, Tabita FR (1994). Transcription control of ribulose bisphosphate

       carboxylase/oxygenase activase and adjacent genes in Anabaena species.

       J Bacteriol 176:6697-6706

Muller C, Tsuzuki M, Shiraiwa Y, Senger H (1994). Carbon affinity adaptation

       of Synechococcus and its phycocyanin mutant to various CO2

       concentrations and light intensities. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol


Read BA, Tabita FR (1994). High substrate specificity factor ribulose

       bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from eukaryotic marine algae and

       properties of recombinant cyanobacterial rubisco containing `algal'

       residue modifications. Arch Biochem Biophys 312:210-218


Barber J, Andersson B (1994). Revealing the blueprint of photosynthesis. 

       Nature 370:31-34

Dechazal NM, Smith GD (1994). Characterization of a brown Nostoc species from

       Java that is resistant to high light intensity and UV. Microbiology Uk

       140(Part 11):3183-3189

Homer-Dixon JA, Gantt E, Bruce D (1994). Pigment orientation changes

       accompanying the light state transition in Synechococcus sp PCC 6301.

       Photosynth Res 40:35-44

Marraccini P, Cassierchauvat C, Bulteau S, Chavez S, Chauvat F (1994). Light-

       regulated promoters from Synechocystis PCC 6803 share a consensus motif

       involved in photoregulation. Mol Microbiol 12:1005-1012

McColl SM, Evans EH (1994). Sidedness in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes.

       Biochem Soc Trans 22:S94

Miller AG, Espie GS (1994). Photosynthetic metabolism of cyanate by the

       cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625. Arch Microbiol 162:151-157

Rouag D, Dominy P (1994). State adaptations in the cyanobacterium

       Synechococcus 6301 (PCC ): Dependence on tight intensity or spectral

       composition? Photosynth Res 40:107-117

Sherman DM, Troyan TA, Sherman LA (1994). Localization of membrane proteins

       in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942 - Radial asymmetry in

       the photosynthetic complexes. Plant Physiol 106:251-262

Vangrondelle R, Dekker JP, Gillbro T, Sundstrom V (1994). Energy transfer and

       trapping in photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1187:1-65

Warner KM, Bullerjahn GS (1994). Light-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in

       the cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica. Plant Physiol 105:629-633

                                  PHOTOSYSTEM I

Armbrust TS, Odom WR, Guikema JA (1994). Structural analysis of photosystem

       I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking. J Exp Zool 269:205-211

Fromme P, Schubert WD, Krauss N (1994). Structure of photosystem I:

       Suggestions on the docking sites for plastocyanin, ferredoxin and the

       coordination of P700. Biochim Biophys Acta 1187:99-105

Gobets B, Vanamerongen H, Monshouwer R, Kruip J, Rogner M, Vangrondelle R,

       Dekker JP (1994). Polarized site-selected fluorescence spectroscopy of

       isolated photosystem I particles. Biochim Biophys Acta 1188:75-85

Kruip J, Bald D, Boekema E, Rogner M (1994). Evidence for the existence of

       trimeric and monomeric Photosystem I complexes in thylakoid membranes

       from cyanobacteria. Photosynth Res 40:279-286

Mannan RM, Pakrasi HB, Sonoike K (1994). The PsaC protein is necessary for the

       stable association of the PsaD, PsaE, and PsaL proteins in the

       photosystem I complex: Analysis of a cyanobacterial mutant strain. Arch

       Biochem Biophys 315:68-73

Setif PQY, Bottin H (1994). Laser flash absorption spectroscopy study of

       ferredoxin reduction by photosystem I in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803:

       Evidence for submicrosecond and microsecond kinetics. Biochemistry


Vanhaeringen B, Dekker JP, Bloemendal M, Rogner M, Vangrondelle R,

       Vanamerongen H (1994). Simultaneous measurement of electric

       birefringence and dichroism. A study on photosystem 1 particles. Biophys

       J 67:411-417

Woolf VM, Wittmershaus BP, Vermaas WFJ, Tran TD (1994). Resolution of low-

       energy chlorophylls in photosystem I of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 at 77

       and 295 K through fluorescence excitation anisotropy. Photosynth Res


Xu Q, Armbrust TS, Guikema JA, Chitnis PR (1994). Organization of photosystem

       I polypeptides. A structural interaction between the PsaD and PsaL

       subunits. Plant Physiol 106:1057-1063

Xu QA, Guikema JA, Chitnis PR (1994). Identification of surface-exposed

       domains on the reducing side of photosystem I. Plant Physiol 106:617-624

Xu Q, Jung YS, Chitnis VP, Guikema JA, Golbeck JH, Chitnis PR (1994).

       Mutational analysis of photosystem I polypeptides in Synechocystis sp.

       PCC 6803 - Subunit requirements for reduction of NADP+ mediated by

       ferredoxin and flavodoxin. J Biol Chem 269:21512-21518

Xu Q, Odom WR, Guikema JA, Chitnis VP, Chitnis PR (1994). Targeted deletion

       of psaJ from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 indicates

       structural interactions between the PsaJ and PsaF subunits of

       photosystem I. Plant Mol Biol 26:291-302

                                 PHOTOSYSTEM II

Anbudurai PR, Mor TS, Ohad I, Shestakov SV, Pakrasi HB (1994). The ctpA gene

       encodes the C-terminal processing protease for the D1 protein of the

       photosystem II reaction center complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:8082-


Barber J (1994). Photosystem II: No longer the black box of photosynthesis.

       Biochem Soc Trans 22:313-318

Burnap RL, Qian M, Shen JR, Inoue Y, Sherman LA (1994). Role of disulfide

       linkage and putative intermolecular binding residues in the stability

       and binding of the extrinsic manganese-stabilizing protein to the

       photosystem II reaction center. Biochemistry 33:13712-13718

Derose VJ, Mukerji I, Latimer MJ, Yachandra VK, Sauer K, Klein MP (1994).

       Comparison of the manganese oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II

       of spinach and Synechococcus sp. with multinuclear manganese model

       compounds by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 116:5239-5249

Elanskaya IV, Allakhverdiev SI, Boichenko VA, Klimov VV, Demeter S, Timofeev

       KN, Shestakov SV (1994). Photochemical characterization of

       cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants with impaired

       photosystem II proteins. Biochemistry-Engl Tr 59:929-934

Gleiter HM, Haag E, Shen JR, Eatonrye JJ, Inoue Y, Vermaas WFJ, Renger G

       (1994). Functional characterization of mutant strains of the

       cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacking short domains within

       the large, lumen-exposed loop of the chlorophyll protein CP47 in

       photosystem II. Biochemistry 33:12063-12071

Han KC, Shen JR, Ikeuchi M, Inoue Y (1994). Chemical crosslinking studies of

       extrinsic proteins in cyanobacterial photosystem II. FEBS Lett 355:121-


Mamedov MD, Beshta OE, Samuilov VD, Semenov AY (1994). Electrogenicity at the

       secondary quinone acceptor site of cyanobacterial photosystem II. FEBS

       Lett 350:96-98

Mamedov MD, Lovyagina ER, Verkhovskii MI, Semenov AY, Cherepanov DA, Shinkarev

       VP (1994). Generation of electric potential difference by Photosystem

       II from thermophilic cyanobacteria. Biochemistry-Engl Tr 59:685-689

Nishiyama Y, Hayashi H, Watanabe T, Murata N (1994). Photosynthetic oxygen

       evolution is stabilized by cytochrome c550 against heat inactivation in

       Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Plant Physiol 105:1313-1319

Nixon PJ, Diner BA (1994). Analysis of water-oxidation mutants constructed in

       the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochem Soc Trans 22:338-


Putnam-Evans C, Bricker TM (1994). Site-directed mutagenesis of the CP47

       protein of photosystem II: Alteration of the basic residue (448)R to

       (448)G prevents the assembly of functional photosystem II centers under

       chloride-limiting conditions. Biochemistry 33:10770-10776

Raval MK, Ramaswamy NK, Nair PM (1994). Mechanism of Mn-II oxidation by the

       extrinsic 33 kDa protein of photosystem II. Plant Sci 98:141-150

Shen GZ, Vermaas WFJ (1994). Mutation of chlorophyll ligands in the

       chlorophyll-binding CP47 protein as studied in a Synechocystis sp.

       PCC 6803 photosystem I-less background. Biochemistry 33:7379-7388

Shestakov SV, Anbudurai PR, Stanbekova GE, Gadzhiev A, Lind LK, Pakrasi HB

       (1994). Molecular cloning and characterization of the ctpA gene encoding

       a carboxyl-terminal processing protease -Analysis of a spontaneous

       photosystem II-deficient mutant strain of the cyanobacterium

       Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. J Biol Chem 269:19354-19359

Soitamo AJ, Zhou G, Clarke AK, Oquist G, Aro EM, Gustafsson P (1994). Over-

       production of the D1 protein of photosystem II reaction centre in the

       cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942. Plant Mol Biol 26:709-721

Spiller H, Stallings W, Tu CK, Gunasekaran M (1994). Dependence of H+ exchange

       and oxygen evolution on K+ in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus

       sp strain UTEX 2380. Can J Microbiol 40:257-265

Srivastava M, Bhaya D, Bose S (1994). Changes in the antenna size of

       photosystem I and photosystem II in Synechococcus sp strain PCC 7942

       grown in the presence of SANDOZ 9785 - A photosystem II inhibitor.

       Photosynth Res 41:303-313

Srivastava M, Mohanty P, Bose S (1994). Alterations in the excitation energy

       distribution in Synechococcus PCC 7942 due to prolonged partial

       inhibition of Photosystem II. Comparison between inhibition caused by

       (a) presence of PS II inhibitor, (b) mutation in the D1 polypeptide of

       PS II. Biochim Biophys Acta 1186:1-11

Tommos C, Madsen C, Styring S, Vermaas W (1994). Point-mutations affecting the

       properties of tyrosine(D) in photosystem II. Characterization by

       isotopic labeling and spectral simulation. Biochemistry 33:11805-11813

Tsinoremas NF, Schaefer MR, Golden SS (1994). Blue and red light reversibly

       control psbA expression in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain

       PCC 7942. J Biol Chem 269:16143-16147

Tyystjarvi T, Aro EM, Jansson C, Maenpaa P (1994). Changes of amino acid

       sequence in PEST-like area and QEEET motif affect degradation rate of

       D1 polypeptide in photosystem II. Plant Mol Biol 25:517-526

                         PHYCOBILISOMES and CAROTENOIDS

Bekasova OD, Sineshchekov VA, Brykina GD, Sineshchekova EV, Grishina LE

       (1994). Minor components in the pigment system of Nostoc muscorum and

       Mastigocladus laminosus. Biochemistry-Engl Tr 59:779-787

Bhalerao RP, Lind LK, Gustafsson P (1994). Cloning of the cpcE and cpcF genes

       from Synechococcus sp PCC 6301 and their inactivation in Synechococcus

       sp PCC 7942. Plant Mol Biol 26:313-326

Casey ES, Grossman A (1994). In vivo and in vitro characterization of the

       light-regulated cpcB2A2 promoter of Fremyella diplosiphon. J Bacteriol


Demidov AA (1994). Fluorescence polarization of triple-chromophore complexes

       with energy transfer. Appl Optics 33:6303-6306

Demidov AA (1994). Quantitative calculations of fluorescence polarization and

       absorption anisotropy kinetics of double- and triple-chromophore

       complexes with energy transfer. Biophys J 67:2184-2190

Demidov AA (1994). Determination of fluorescence polarization of double

       chromophore complexes. J Theor Biol 170:355-358

Demidov AA, Borisov AY (1994). Computer simulation of exciton jumping

       statistics and energy flow in C-phycocyanin of algae Agmenellum

       quadruplicatum in the presence of traps. Photochem Photobiol 60:46-52

Fairchild CD, Glazer AN (1994). Nonenzymatic bilin addition to the gamma

       subunit of an apophycoerythrin. J Biol Chem 269:28988-28996

Garnier F, Dubacq JP, Thomas JC (1994). Evidence for a transient association

       of new proteins with the Spirulina maxima phycobilisome in relation to

       light intensity. Plant Physiol 106:747-754

Gindt YM, Zhou JH, Bryant DA, Sauer K (1994). Spectroscopic studies of

       phycobilisome subcore preparations lacking key core chromophores:

       Assignment of excited state energies to the L[cm], с[18] and х[AP-B]

       chromophores. Biochim Biophys Acta 1186:153-162

Glazer AN, Gindt YM, Chan CF, Sauer K (1994). Selective disruption of energy

       flow from phycobilisomes to Photosystem I. Photosynth Res 40:167-173

Gottschalk L, Lottspeich F, Scheer H (1994). Reconstitution of an

       allophycocyanin trimer complex containing the C-terminal 21-23 kDa

       domain of the core-membrane linker polypeptide L[cm]. Z Naturforsch C


Maccoll R, Lam I, Choi CY, Kim J (1994). Exciton splitting in phycoerythrin

       545. J Biol Chem 269:25465-25469

Schneider S, Jager W, Prenzel CJ, Brehm G, Sai PSM, Scheer H, Lottspeich F

       (1994). Photophysics of phycoerythrocyanins from the cyanobacterium

       Westiellopsis prolifica studied by time-resolved fluorescence and

       coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy. J Photochem

       Photobiol B-Biol 26:75-85

Skibinski A, Planner A (1994). Spectral Properties of Mastigocladus laminosus

       Phycobilisomes Embedded in Poly(vinyl Alcohol) Films. J Photochem

       Photobiol B-Biol 23:213-223

Sobczyk A, Bely A, Demarsac NT, Houmard J (1994). A phosphorylated DNA-binding

       protein is specific for the red-light signal during complementary

       chromatic adaptation in cyanobacteria. Mol Microbiol 13:875-885

Szalontai B, Gombos Z, Csizmadia V, Bagyinka C, Lutz M (1994). Structure and

       interactions of phycocyanobilin chromophores in phycocyanin and

       allophycocyanin from an analysis of their resonance Raman spectra.

       Biochemistry 33:11823-11832

Westermann M, Ernst A, Brass S, Boger P, Wehrmeyer W (1994). Ultrastructure

       of cell wall and photosynthetic apparatus of the phycobilisome-less

       Synechocystis sp. strain BO 8402 and phycobilisome-containing derivative

       strain BO 9201. Arch Microbiol 162:222-232

Yamazaki T, Nishimura Y, Yamazaki I, Hirano M, Matsuura K, Shimada K, Mimuro

       M (1994). Energy migration in allophycocyanin-B trimer with a linker

       polypeptide: Analysis by the principal multi-component spectral

       estimation (PMSE) method. FEBS Lett 353:43-47

Zhao JQ, Zhu JC, Jiang LJ (1994). Computer Simulation on Kinetics of Primary

       Process in Photosynthesis 2. Energy Transfer in the beta-Subunits and

       Monomers in C-Phycocyanins. Sci China Ser B 37:831-841

Cunningham FX, Sun ZR, Chamovitz D, Hirschberg J, Gantt E (1994). Molecular

       structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the

       cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC 7942. Plant Cell 6:1107-1121

Hennig M, Grimm B, Jenny M, Muller R, Jansonius JN (1994). Crystallization and

       preliminary X-ray analysis of wild-type and K272A mutant glutamate 1-

       semialdehyde aminotransferase from Synechococcus. J Mol Biol 242:591-594

Martinez Ferez I, Fernandez Gonzalez B, Sandmann G, Vioque A (1994). Cloning

       and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for phytoene

       synthase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochim

       Biophys Acta 1218:145-152

Mayer SM, Rieble S, Beale SI (1994). Metal requirements of the enzymes

       catalyzing conversion of glutamate to ы-aminolevulinic acid in extracts

       of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Arch Biochem

       Biophys 312:203-209

Schreiber U (1994). New emitter-detector-cuvette assembly for measuring

       modulated chlorophyll fluorescence of highly diluted suspensions in

       conjunction with the standard PAM fluorometer. Z Naturforsch C 49:646-



Caffrey MS (1994). Strategies for the study of cytochrome c structure and 

       function by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochimie 76:622-630

Diaz A, Navarro F, Hervas M, Navarro JA, Chavez S, Florencio FJ, Delarosa MA

       (1994). Cloning and correct expression in E. coli of the petJ gene

       encoding cytochrome c6 from Synechocystis 6803. FEBS Lett 347:173-177

Malakhov MP, Wada H, Los DA, Semenenko VE, Murata N (1994). A new type of

       cytochrome c from Synechocystis PCC 6803. J Plant Physiol 144:259-264

Mamedov MD (1994). Effect of thylakoid lipids on the activity of cytochrome

       bf complex. Biochemistry-Engl Tr 59:625-627

Meyer TE, Tollin G, Cusanovich MA (1994). Protein interaction sites obtained

       via sequence homology. The site of complexation of electron transfer

       partners of cytochrome c revealed by mapping amino acid substitutions

       onto three-dimensional protein surfaces. Biochimie 76:480-488

Ortega JM, Hervas M, Delarosa MA, Losada M (1994). Redox properties of

       cytochrome b559 in photosynthetic membranes from the cyanobacterium

       Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. J Plant Physiol 144:454-461

Peschek GA, Obinger C, Sherman DM, Sherman LA (1994). Immunocytochemical

       localization of the cytochrome c oxidase in a cyanobacterium,

       Synechococcus PCC 7942 (Anacystis nidulans). Biochim Biophys Acta


Schmetterer G, Alge D, Gregor W (1994). Deletion of cytochrome c oxidase genes

       from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803:  Evidence for

       alternative respiratory pathways. Photosynth Res 42:43-50

Cartagena E, Bes MT, Gomez Moreno C, Peleato ML (1994). Purification and

       characterization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from the green alga

       Chlorella fusca. Physiol Plant 91:645-650

Geerts D, Schubert H, Devrieze G, Borrias M, Matthijs HCP, Weisbeek PJ (1994).

       Expression of Anabaena PCC 7937 plastocyanin in Synechococcus PCC 7942

       enhances photosynthetic electron transfer and alters the electron

       distribution between photosystem I and cytochrome c oxidase. J Biol Chem


Gomez Moreno C, Bes MT (1994). Structural requirements for the electron

       transfer between a flavoprotein and viologens. Biochim Biophys Acta


Gomez Moreno C, Medina M, Hurley JK, Cusanovich MA, Markley JL, Cheng H, Xia

       B, Chae YK, Tollin G (1994). Protein engineering for the elucidation of

       the mechanism of electron transfer in redox proteins. Biochem Soc Trans


Hurley JK, Medina M, Gomez Moreno C, Tollin G (1994). Further characterization

       by site-directed mutagenesis of the protein-protein interface in the

       ferredoxin/ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase system from Anabaena: Requirement

       of a negative charge at position 94 in ferredoxin for rapid electron

       transfer. Arch Biochem Biophys 312:480-486

Medina M, Gomez Moreno C, Cammack R (1994). ESR and ENDOR characterization of

       flavodoxin from Anabaena sp. PCC 7119. Biochem Soc Trans 22:S371

Navarro JA, Hervas M, Pueyo JJ, Medina M, Gomezmoreno C, Delarosa MA, Tollin

       G (1994). Laser flash-induced photoreduction of photosynthetic

       ferredoxins and flavodoxin by 5-deazariboflavin and by a viologen

       analogue. Photochem Photobiol 60:231-236

Poncelet M, Cassierchauvat C, Chauvat F (1994). Sequence of the flavodoxin-

       encoding gene from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Gene


Razquin P, Schmitz S, Fillat MF, Peleato ML, Bohme H (1994). Transcriptional

       and translational analysis of ferredoxin and flavodoxin under iron and

       nitrogen stress in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J Bacteriol 176:7409-


Vermaas WFJ (1994). Molecular-genetic approaches to study photosynthetic and

       respiratory electron transport in thylakoids from cyanobacteria. Biochim

       Biophys Acta 1187:181-186

Bakels RHA, Vanwalraven HS, Vanwielink JE, Vanderzwetdegraaff I, Krenn BE,

       Krab K, Berden JA, Kraayenhof R (1994). The effect of sulfite on the ATP

       hydrolysis and synthesis activity of membrane-bound H+-ATP synthase from

       various species. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:487-492

Brown II, (1994). Is Ca2+ the third coupling ion? (Hypothesis). Biochem 

       (Moscow) 59:1321-1323

Kanamaru K, Kashiwagi S, Mizuno T (1994). A copper-transporting P-type ATPase

       found in the thylakoid membrane of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus

       species PCC 7942. Mol Microbiol 13:369-377

Moezelaar R, Stal LJ (1994). Fermentation in the unicellular cyanobacterium

       Microcystis PCC 7806. Arch Microbiol 162:63-69

Phung LT, Ajlani G, Haselkorn R (1994). P-type ATPase from the cyanobacterium

       Synechococcus 7942 related to the human Menkes and Wilson disease gene

       products. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:9651-9654

Sand O, Petersen IM, Jorgen J, Iversen L (1994). Purification and some

       properties of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from

       Synechococcus sp. Anton Leeuwenhoek Int J Gen M 65:133-142

Steinemann D, Lill H, Junge W, Engelbrecht S (1994). Over-production,

       renaturation and reconstitution of delta and epsilon subunits from

       chloroplast and cyanobacterial F-1. Biochim Biophys Acta 1187:354-359

Wernergrune S, Gunkel D, Schumann J, Strotmann H (1994). Insertion of a

       ''chloroplast-like'' regulatory segment responsible for thiol modulation

       into т-subunit of F0F1-ATPase of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

       by mutagenesis of atpC. Mol Gen Genet 244:144-150

Vanderstaay GWM, Staehelin LA (1994). Biochemical characterization of protein

       composition and protein phosphorylation patterns in stacked and

       unstacked thylakoid membranes of the prochlorophyte Prochlorothrix

       hollandica. J Biol Chem 269:24834-24844


Chemeresyuk NN, Elanskaya IV (1994). Cloning and Expression of Hordein B1-Gene

       of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

       PCC 6803 and Escherichia coli. Genetika 30:1141-1145

Sarma TA, Singh R (1994). Isolation and Characterization of Temperature-

       Sensitive Mutants of Cyanophage-N-1. Acta Virol 38:11-16

Tsinoremas NF, Kutach AK, Strayer CA, Golden SS (1994). Efficient gene

       transfer in Synechococcus sp. strains PCC 7942 and PCC 6301 by

       interspecies conjugation and chromosomal recombination. J Bacteriol


Biniszkiewicz D, Cesnaviciene E, Shub DA (1994). Self-splicing group I intron

       in cyanobacterial initiator methionine tRNA: Evidence for lateral

       transfer of introns in bacteria. EMBO J 13:4629-4635

Fernandez-Piдas F, Wolk CP (1994). Expression of luxCD-E in Anabaena sp can

       replace the use of exogenous aldehyde for in vivo localization of

       transcription by luxAB. Gene 150:169-174

Houmard J (1994). Gene transcription in filamentous cyanobacteria.

       Microbiology Uk 140(Part 3):433-441

Pascual A, Vioque A (1994). Sequence and structure of the RNA subunit of RNase

       P from the cyanobacterium Pseudoanabaena sp. PCC 6903. Biochim Biophys

       Acta 1218:463-465

Schyns G, Sobczyk A, Demarsac NT, Houmard J (1994). Specific initiation of

       transcription at a cyanobacterial promoter with RNA polymerase purified

       from Calothrix sp. PCC 7601. Mol Microbiol 13:887-896

Tan XL, Varughese M, Widger WR (1994). A light-repressed transcript found in

       Synechococcus PCC 7002 is similar to a chloroplast-specific small

       subunit ribosomal protein and to a transcription modulator protein

       associated with х54. J Biol Chem 269:20905-20912

Soper BW, Reddy KJ (1994). Identification of a nuclease and host restriction-

       modification in the unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium

       Cyanothece sp. J Bacteriol 176:5565-5570

Yang XY, Daniel H, McFadden BA (1994). A facile method to study DNA synthesis

       in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Curr Microbiol 29:171-175

Yang XY, Daniell H, McFadden B (1994). In vitro replication of cyanobacterial

       plasmids from Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plasmid 32:195-207

Malakhov MP, Semenenko VE (1994). Codon usage in genes of cyanobacterium

       Synechocystis PCC 6803. Russ J Plant Physiol 41:141-146 ([Engl])

Welsh PL, Johnson DR, Zhang YS, Breitenberger CA (1994). Synechocystis  sp.

       PCC 6803  fusB gene, located outside of the str operon, encodes a

       polypeptide related to protein synthesis factor EF-G. Plant Mol Biol


Kim M, Choi YK (1994). A new Synechococcus cyanophage from a reservoir in

       Korea. Virology 204:338-342

Koltukova NV, Kadyrova GK, Mendzhul MI, Muradov MM (1993). Effect of

       Cyanophage A-1 Reproduction on Proteolysis in the Cells of Anabaena

       variabilis. Microbiology-Engl Tr 62:627-629

Singh S, Bhatnagar A, Kashyap AK (1994). Energetics of cyanophage N-1

       multiplication in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

       Microbios 78:259-265

                            APPLIED CYANOBACTERIOLOGY

Colwell FS, Pryfogle PA, Lee BD, Bishop CL (1994). Use of a cyanobacterium as

       a particulate tracer for terrestrial subsurface applications. J

       Microbiol Meth 20:93-101

Maquieira A, Elmahadi HAM, Puchades R (1994). Immobilized cyanobacteria for

       on-line trace metal enrichment by flow injection atomic absorption

       spectrometry. Anal Chem 66:3632-3638

Megharaj M, Madhavi DR, Sreenivasulu C, Umamaheswari A, Venkateswarlu K

       (1994). Biodegradation of Methyl Parathion by Soil Isolates of

       Microalgae and Cyanobacteria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53:292-297

Swain N, Rath B, Adhikary SP (1994). Growth response of the cyanobacterium

       Microcystis aeruginosa to herbicides and pesticides. J Basic Microbiol


Windhovel U, Geiges B, Sandmann G, Boger P (1994). Engineering Cyanobacterial

       Models Resistant to Bleaching Herbicides. Pestic Biochem Physiol 49:63-


Hayashi O, Katoh T, Okuwaki Y (1994). Enhancement of antibody production in

       mice by dietary Spirulina platensis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 40:431-441

Skulberg OM (1994). Oscillatorialean cyanoprokaryotes and their application

       for algal culture technology. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 105, Algological

       Studies 75:265-278

Alhasan RH, Sorkhoh NA, Albader D, Radwan SS (1994). Utilization of

       hydrocarbons by cyanobacteria from microbial mats on oily coasts of the

       Gulf. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 41:615-619

Bockris JO, Bhardwaj RC, Tennakoon CLK (1994). Electrochemistry of waste

       removal - A review. Analyst 119:781-789

Kuritz T, Wolk CP (1995). Use of filamentous cyanobacteria for biodegradation

       of organic pollutants. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:234-238




Send CONTRIBUTIONS to one of the addresses listed below. There is no charge

to receive the newsletter electronically, and you may receive the electronic

version even weeks earlier than others would receive the printed version. To

get on the ELECTRONIC MAILING LIST, send your name, telephone, fax, and E-mail

numbers (if any), and a brief description of your research interests for

inclusion in the next Directory of Cyanobacteriologists and the name and model

number of printer(s) available to you. To obtain a PRINTED VERSION OF THE

NEWSLETTER BY MAIL, send $10 U.S. (please, no checks except in U.S. currency)

per year to Jeff Elhai, along with the same information mentioned above

(except printer name). If it is difficult for you to send hard currency, send

a note indicating your interest. 

AUSTRALIA     Steve Delaney            Department of Biotechnology,

 /NEW ZEALAND                          University of New South Wales, P.O.

                                       Box 1, Kensington, New South Wales

                                       AUSTRALIA 2033 (Tel) 02-697-2056

AUSTRIA       Georg Schmetterer        Institut fur Physikalische Chemie,

                                       Wahringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien

                                       (Tel) 43-1-31367-2555

                                       (EMail) A8422dad@Awiuni11

CANADA        Neil Strauss             Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Toronto, Toronto, Ontario  M5S 1A1.

                                       (Tel) 416-978-3532/5563

                                       (Fax) 416-978-5878

                                       (E-mail) Straus@Botany.UToronto.Ca

P.R.CHINA     Chao-Tsi Tseng           Centre of Marine Sciences, Dept. 

                                       of Biology, Nanjing University,

                                       Nanjing. (Tel) 637551-2551           

                                       (Fax) 086025-302728

FRANCE        Nicole Tandeau de Marsac Physiologie Microbienne, Institut

                                       Pasteur, 29 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724

                                       Paris Cedex 15. (Tel) 567-46-98


                                       (EMail) NTMarsac@Pasteur.Fr

GERMANY       Wolfgang Lockau          Biochemie der Pflanzen, Fachbereich 

                                       Biologie, Humboldt-UniversitДt,

                                       Invalidenstr. 42, 10 115 Berlin

                                       (Tel) 30-2897-2686 (Fax) 30-2897-2641

INDIA         Joe Thomas               Biotechnology Division, SPIC Science

                                       Foundation, 110 Mount Road, Madras

                                       600 032. (Tel) 432342 (Fax) 432163

ISRAEL        Elisha Tel-Or            Dept. of Agricultural Botany, The

                                       Hebrew University, Rehovot 76100

                                       (Tel) 08-481262

ITALY         Mario Tredici            Departimento di Scienze e Tecnologie

                                       Alimentari e Microbiologiche.

                                       Universita degli Studi di Firenze,

                                       P.le.delle Cascine 27 51044 Firenze.

                                       (Tel) 055-352051 (Fax) 055-330431

                                       (E-mail) Tredici@Csma.Fi.Cnr.It

NETHERLANDS   Luuc Mur                 Laboratorium voor Microbiologie,

                                       Universiteit voor Amsterdam, Nieuwe

                                       Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam

                                       (Tel) 31-20-525-7056 

                                       (Fax) 31-20-525-5802

                                       (E-mail) A417LMur@Horus.Sara.NL

SCANDANAVIA   Olav Skulberg            Norwegian Institute for Water

                                       Research, P.O.box 69 Korsvall, N-0808

                                       Oslo 8 NORWAY. (Tel) 47 22 185266

                                       (Fax) 47 22 185200

U.K.          Tony Walsby              Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG.

                                       (Tel) 0272-303030

ANYWHERE ELSE Jeff Elhai               Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida

                                       International University, University

                                       Park Campus, Miami FL 33199 USA. 

                                       (Tel) 305-348-3584, (Fax)305-348-1986

                                       (E-mail) Cyano@Servax.Fiu.Edu