Volume 10 Number 1           February 1994


CYANONEWS - a newsletter intended to provide cyanobacteriologists with a forum

     for rapid informal communication, unavailable through journals.


     you read in this newsletter is contributed by readers like yourself.

     Published occasionally, about three times per year.

SUBSCRIPTIONS - $10 or equivalent/year for hard copy. E-mail version is free.

CONTRIBUTIONS - Expected every couple of years: a new result, an upcoming

     meeting or a summary of a past meeting, a post-doctoral opening, a new

     publication, a request for strains, a change of life... something. See

     last page for addresses you can send news to.


     item for a contact person.  Also, a Directory of Cyanobacteriologists is

     distributed every two years or on request. 


COPYRIGHT - This newsletter is not copyrighted and no rights are reserved. You

     are encouraged to reproduce or to transmit any part of this publication


     whatever means at your disposal, no permission required.





  * Meetings

  * Monographs

  * Positions available / sought

  * Find strains fast... in the Microbial Germplasm Database


  * Comings and goings of ourselves


  * Porin isolated from cyano outer membrane

  * Zones of nitrogenase expression in trichomes of Trichodesmium

  * High copy shuttle vector for Anabaena

  * Computer models of energy transfer in C-phycocyanin complexes







The Fifth International PHYCOLOGICAL CONGRESS is to be held in Qingdao,

P.R. China, 26 June to 2 July 1994. The congress will feature workshops on

algal molecular biology, biodiversity, biogeography of freshwater algae,

culture methodologies, and phycology and coastal management.

    CONTACT: The Secretariat, EMBL, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy

    of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao, P.R. CHINA 266071

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A satellite workshop in Wuhan, P.R. China, 6-7 July will discuss the latest

developments in MICROALGAL BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY and will be dedicated to

the memory of the late Li Shanghao. The workshop immediately follows the

Phycological Congress in Qingdao.

    CONTACT: LIU Yong-Ding, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy

    of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, P.R. CHINA. (Fax) 86-27-725132.

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A month of Chinese meetings will finish up with the Sixth International

SYMPOSIUM ON SALINE LAKES, 14-19 July 1994, in Beijing, P.R. China. The

meeting will cover a wide range of topics, from geochemistry and

mineralization to mineral effects on lake ecosystems and the impact of human

activities on saline lake areas.

    CONTACT: ZHENG Mianping or ZHANG Fasheng, Organizing Committee of 6th

    ISSL, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Baiwanzhuang Road 26,

    Beijing 100037, P.R. CHINA. (Fax) 0086-1-8310894.

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SOLAR ENERGY will be held 24-29 July 1994 in Interlaken, Switzerland. This IPS

conference will cover photosynthesis in biological and biomimetic systems as

well as a variety of topics in photochemistry. The deadline for registration

is March 31 and for abstracts February 28.

    CONTACT: The IPS-10 Secretariat, Institute of Inorganic and Physical

    Chemistry, University of Berne, Freiestrasse 3, 

    CH-3000 Berne 9, SWITZERLAND. (Tel) +41 31 631 42 36, 

    (Fax) +41 31 631 39 94

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To honor Philip Thornber on his retirement, there will be a conference


COMPLEXES", planned for 3-6 August 1994. The conference will be held at the

University of California at Los Angeles and will focus on recent developments

in the structural biology of chlorophyll-protein complexes from plants and

bacteria as well as future research directions. 

    CONTACT:  Richard Malkin, Department of Plant Biology, 111 Koshland

    Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.  (Tel) 510-642-5959,

    (Fax) 510-642-4995, (Email) DickM@Nature.Berkeley.Edu

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Cyanobacteriologists world-wide will descend upon Urbino, Italy, 10-15


PROKARYOTES. They (and, to be fair, purple- and green-afficionados as well)

will focus on five themes: Biogenesis and regulation of the photosynthetic

apparatus, reaction centers and antenna, metabolism, ecology and taxonomy, and

biochemical processes. In addition, a round table discussion is scheduled on

the topic of "Basic and Applied Biotechnological Processes". A limited number

of grants will be available for younger researchers and for students.

Applications will for support will be considered only by those presenting an


    CONTACT: Organizing Secretariat of the VIII ISPP, S.Ventura, CNR-CSMA,

    p.le delle Cascine 27, I-50144 Firenze, ITALY. (Tel) +39-55-350542 or

    -352051, (Fax) +39-55-330431, (E-mail)

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FIXATION is scheduled for 12-17 September 1994 in Harare, Zimbabwe, focusing

on the theme of agronomic, socio-economic, and environmental benefits of

biological nitrogen-fixing systems in Africa. Registration is US$150.

Financial assistance may be available for participants.

    CONTACT: The Secretary, AABNF 6TH Conference, Department of Soil

    Science, University of Zimbabwe, Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare,

    Zimbabwe. (Tel) 263-4-303211 ext. 1412, (Telex) 26580 UNIVZ ZW,

    (Telegrams) UNIVERSITY, (Fax) 263-4-333407 or -335249


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SCENE, a collection of reports on the cyanobacterial research of laboratories

throughout India, is available without charge.

    CONTACT: G. Subramanian, National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria,

    Bharathidasan niversity, Palkalaiperur, Tiruchirapalli 620 024, INDIA.

    (Tel) 0431-896-352, 

    (Fax) 0431-96245, (Telex) 0455-253 BARD.

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CYANOBACTERIA have recently been seen center stage IN THE POPULAR MEDIA. In

the January 1994 issue of Scientific American [270(1):78-86], Wayne Carmichael

presents for public inspection a review of toxic cyanobacteria, including a

beautiful picture of a Microcystis bloom set against a garden in Beijing. In

the same issue there is a special advertising section in which the Thai

government puts its best scientific foot forward. Part of their best foot is

a photograph, captioned "Cloning genes for biopesticides", that displays a

table full of petri plates covered with (it appears) cyanobacteria.

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ENRIQUE FLORES points out that there is a conflict between the next European

and American Cyanobacterial Workshops, both scheduled for about the same dates

(May/June, 1995). The European Workshop is to be held in Sevilla, Spain, and

the American Workshop in Asilomar, California. To avoid such conflicts now and

in the future, Enrique proposes that each of the two workshops be held once

every three years, to fit in between the Photosynthetic Prokaryote meetings.

In concrete terms:

    1991: Photosynthetic Prokarotes, Amherst                        

    1992: European Workshop, Bristol               

    1993: American Workshop, Asilomar

    1994: Photosynthetic Prokaryotes, Urbino

    1995: Euroopean Workshop, Sevilla

      or  American Workshop, Asilomar

    1996: American Workshop, Asilomar

      or  European Workshop, Sevilla

    1997: Photosynthetic Prokaryotes, ??

It is by no means too early to think about such things. Enrique would

appreciate opinions on this proposal along with preferences as to which years

would be most convenient for which meetings.

    CONTACT: Enrique Flores, Instituto de Bioqu�mica Vegetal y Fotos�ntesis,

    Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Apartado 1113, 

    41080 Sevilla SPAIN. (Tel) 954-61-70-11, (Fax) 34-5-462-0154,

    (E-mail) Flores@Cica.Es

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Copies of the 1993 CYANOBACTERIA WORKSHOP ABSTRACT BOOKLET are available for

the asking. 

    CONTACT: Jane Edwards, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 290 Panama

    Street, Stanford, CA 94305 U.S.A. (Tel) 415-325-1521 ext. 204,

    (Fax) 415-325-6857, (E-mail)

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The Norwegian Institute for Water Research has made available a monograph

entitled TAXONOMY OF TOXIC CYANOPHYCEAE (Cyanobacteria), by OM Skulberg, WW

Carmichael, GA Codd, and R Skulberg, that surveys the toxic species and

provides a practical guide for their identification.

    CONTACT: Olav Skulberg, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O.Box

    69 Korsvall, N-0808 Oslo 8 NORWAY

                 ****** POSITIONS OFFERED AND SOUGHT ******


CONTACT: Michael Seibert, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

    80401-3393, U.S.A. (Tel) 303-384-6279, (Fax) 303-384-6150,


RESEARCH: Oxygen-evolution, electron donation, and photoactivation processes

    in PSII, using biochemical, spectroscopic, and electrochemical approaches

    with membrane/submembrane fractions obtained from plants and



PERTINENT ARTICLES: Biochem (1991) 30:9615 and 30:9625; Research in

    Photosynthesis (1992), Murata N, ed., Vol II, p.357; Photosyn Res (1993)

    December issue.

SUPPORT: Salary highly competitive, for one year with possibility of


SUBMIT: CV with list of publications; cover letter with statement of research

    interests; names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three professional


START: Immediately

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POSITION SOUGHT: Postdoc in metal-toxicity or in nitrogen-fixation 

APPLICANT: Srinivas Denduluri, Dept. of Biology, Memorial University, St.


    Newfoundland, A1B 3X9 CANADA. (E-mail)


    M.Sc. in cytogenetics 

    M.Phil. in microbiology ("Toxicity of lead and its interaction with

         chelating agents on some vegetable crops grown in sewage-irrigated


    Ph.D. (1st) in plant physiology and biochemistry ("Effects of lead,

         manganese, and chelating agents on some vegetable crops grown in


         irrigated soil"). 

    Ph.D. (2nd, thesis recently submitted) at Memorial University ("Role of

         lipid bodies in nitrogen-fixing nodules of Sesbania"). Experience


         in nutrient cycling and related techniques, such as HPLC, gas

         chromatography, and isotopic methods.

PUBLICATIONS (selected; more available on request): 

    Srinivas D. (1993). Reduction of lead accumulation by ethylenediamine

         tetraacetic acid and nitrilo triacetic acid in okra grown in sewage

         irrigated soil. Bull Environ Cont Toxicol 51:40-45.

    Bal AK, Srinivas D (1993). Catalase activity and biogenesis of microbodies

         in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of beach pea. Cell Biol Interntl (in


    Srinivas, D (1991) Dioecism in flowering plants: Causes and Evolution.


         Edu 2:93-100.


    Microbial germplasm maintained in research-oriented laboratories in

universities and experiment stations is a vast undocumented resource, one that

is difficult to tap. The Microbial Germplasm Database (MGD) is designed to

help you navigate through many of these collections in order to find what you

want and how to obtain it. Microorganisms and genetic constructs covered by

MGD include  bacteria, viruses, fungi, various reproducible genetic elements,

and nematodes. The germplasm documented in MGD is primarily used in research

(botanical, biochemical, genetic, or agricultural) that is related to plants.

    You can access MGD from your computer through the MGD Gopher, a


information port. If your local internet host is running Gopher software,

simply type "gopher". Choose the "Other Gopher Servers" menu item, and then

progressively home in on MGD by choosing: North America, United States,

Oregon, and, finally, Microbial Germplasm Database. Alternatively, you can

connect to MGD through the TELNET command, using the address (the

ip number is Type mgd at the login prompt, and press the Enter

key when asked for a password. 

    Besides putting the MGD database at your fingertips, the MGD Gopher also

provides access to literature covering biodiversity, germplasm preservation,

nitrogen fixation, biocontrol, and sustainable agriculture. The references can

be searched by keyword, author, and title. Several other useful tools are

available, including a large collection of electronic phonebooks (some

including E-mail addresses) for universities and organizations throughout the


    The menus are pretty self-explanatory, and help files are available to

guide you through them. MGD puts out a newsletter (hardcopy free) that

describes the service and new features as they arise.

    CONTACT: Joe Hanus, Microbial Germplasm Database, Dept. of Botany and


    Pathology, Oregon State University,Corvallis, OR 97331-2902, U.S.A.

    (Tel) 503-737-5300, (Fax) 503-737-3573, (E-mail)




JOHN BENEMANN continues his peripatetic ways. He's moved back to California

from his previous base in Vero Beach, Florida (U.S.A.). He continues to

consult on biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria.

    343 Caravelle Drive, Walnut Creek CA 94598, U.S.A. (Tel/Fax) 510-939-


IGOR BROWN is temporarily absent from his bench in Odessa, Ukraine to visit

the laboratory of Gunter Peschek until March 10, 1994.

    c/o Gunter Peschek, Biophysical Chemistry Group, Institut fuer Physikal.

    Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Wahringer  Str. 42, A-1090 Wien, AUSTRIA

    (Fax) 011-43-1-3104597

YUPING CAI has left the safe confines of Michigan State University to begin

a post-doc in the laboratory of Alex Glazer.

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 230 Stanley Hall, University

    of California, Berkeley CA 94720, U.S.A. (Tel) 510-2643-6302,

    (Fax) 510-643-9290.

MIROSLAV GANTAR has left Nigel Kirby's lab in Dundee to take a research

position with Jeff Elhai.

    Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida International University,

    University Park, Miami FL 33199 U.S.A. (Tel) 305-348-4030 (Fax) 305-348-


NIGEL KIRBY has also left Nigel Kirby's lab. He's abandoned academia to head

research at the Scottish Crop Research Institute.

    Mylnefield Research Services Ltd., Scottish Crop Research Institute,

    Invergrowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, Scottland, U.K. (Tel) 0382-562731,

    (Fax) 0382-562426

WOLFGANG LOCKAU has moved operations from Regensburg to his new home in


    Biochemie der Pflanzen, Fachbereich Biologie, Humboldt-Universitaet,

    Invalidenstr. 42, 10 115 Berlin, GERMANY

SEAN TURNER has moved from cold to wet, leaving University of Cincinnati for

a warm new lab in Louisiana.

    Department of Botany, Life Sciences Building, Louisiana State University,

    Baton Rouge LA 70803-1705, U.S.A. (Tel-lab) 504-388-8771, 

    (Tel-office) 504-388-8494, (E-mail) BtTurn@LsuVax.Sncc.Lsu.Edu

PETER WOLK is visiting the lab of Nicole Tandeau de Marsac, returning to

Michigan State University June, 1994.

    Physiologie Microbienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724

    Paris Cedex 15, FRANCE. (Fax), (E-mail) CPWolk@Pasteur.Fr





ALFRED HANSEL and others in Uwe J�rgens' lab have isolated and characterized

a pore-forming protein (a porin) from the outer membrane of Synechococcus

PCC 6301. The protein was purified under native conditions (using LDAO as

detergent and anion exchange chromatography) the protein and migrated on SDS-

PAGE at about 52 kD. Single channel conductance of 5.5 nS was observed when

the protein was incorporated into black lipid bilayer. The protein is blocked

at its N-terminus and has Phe-Thr-Phe at its C-terminus. Analysis of its amino

acids showed that the protein is rather hydrophilic, which is atypical for

membrane proteins, but typical for porins. The work will appear soon in

Archives of Microbiology. Alfred is currently trying to clone the gene

encoding the pore-forming protein in order to get information about the

structure and regulation of porins in cyanobacteria.

    Alfred Hansel, Institut f�r Biologie II/Mikrobiologie, Universit�t

    Frieburg, Sch�nzlestra�e 1, D-79104 Freiburg GERMANY.

    (Tel) 0761-2034542, (E-mail) Hansel@Sun1.Ruf.Uni-Freiburg.De


      At one time, heterocystous cyanobacteria were thought to be the only

cyanobacterial species capable of nitrogen fixation. In the past twenty-five

years, however, several strains, both unicellular and filamentous, have been

characterized that fix nitrogen without benefit of heterocysts. The question

of how these strains protect nitrogenase against inactivation by oxygen has

been intensely studied [Fay P (1992) Microbiol Rev 56:340-373]. Many strains

temporally separate the processes of nitrogen fixation and oxygenic

photosynthesis. In one such filamentous strain, Oscillatoria limosa,

nitrogenase appears to be distributed to all cells in the filament [Stal L &

Bergman B (1990) Planta 182:287-291]. Nitrogenase is similarly distributed in

Plectonema boryanum [Smoker J & Barnum SR (1990) 1st Eur Workshop Mol Biol

Cyanobacteria], a strain that fixes nitrogen only under conditions of very low

levels of ambient oxygen. 

      Nitrogen-fixing Trichodesmium, a group of marine planktonic

cyanobacteria, is exceptional in a number of respects. Its filaments, though

lacking heterocysts, can maintain nitrogen fixation against saturating levels

of O2 in seawater. Photosynthetically-produced oxygen is not avoided by

temporal separation, since nitrogen fixation is suppressed by darkness or DCMU

[Ohki K & Fujita Y (1988) Mar Biol 98:111-114]. Spatial separation of

photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium was suggested twenty

years ago by Carpenter and Price [(1976) Science 191:1278-1280], based on

their observation that trichomes passing through the middle of a colony

possessed a central zone of lightly pigmented cells that do not incorporate

14CO2. More recent attempts to localize nitrogenase by immunogold staining

reported nitrogenase subunits in all cells of the filament [Paerl et al (1989)

Appl Environ Microbiol 55:2965-2975; Ohki et al (1991) Proc 5th Symp Internat

Prize Biol, eds. Mauchline J & Nemoto T, pp.205-216] or in a limited number

of randomly distributed trichomes [Bergman B & Carpenter EJ (1991) J Phycol


      BIRGITTA BERGMAN and coworkers now focus the controversy with recent

results from immunogold labeling of longitudinally sectioned trichomes of

Trichodesmium contortum. Nitrogenase appeared to be limited to a zone of

consecutive cells central to the trichome. These cells, constituting about 10

to 15% of the total number within the trichome, are about half as long as

those cells outside the zone. Although cells with nitrogenase appear paler by

light microscopy, they contain immunologically reactive phycorerythrin in the

same quantities as do cells outside of the zone. Their previous results

[Bergman & Carpenter, op cit.] are not necessarily in conflict since the

strain used in that study, T. thiebautii, has trichomes so twisted that it was

not possible to cross-section more than a few cells in a row. Interestingly,

the nitrogenase-containing cells of T. thiebautii contain a considerably

higher than normal level of cytochrome oxidase [Bergman et al. (1993) Appl

Environ Microbiol 59:3239-3244].

      Does Trichodesmium possess a differentiated cell type similar in

function to heterocysts but without the heterocyst's specialized cell

envelope? Do different species of Trichodesmium possess different strategies

of protecting nitrogenase from oxygen? Do zones of nitrogenase-laden cells

appear in Trichodesmium in an analogous fashion as strings of proheterocysts

in certain strains of Anabaena [Wilcox et al (1973) J Cell Sci 12:707-725]?

Clearly there is no lack of interesting questions to answer! 

    Birgitta Bergman, Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106,

    Stockholm SWEDEN. (Tel) 46-8-16 37 51, (Fax) 46-8-16 55 25, (E-

    mail) Botanik@Botan.Su.Se


    Those of us who play with genes in E. coli would find it difficult to

imagine life without high-copy-number plasmids such as pBR322, pUC18, and

derivatives. Those of us who study Anabaena PCC 7120, however, have endured

such a life working with our organism, having at our disposal only shuttle

vectors (e.g., those based on the cyanobacterial plasmid pDU1) that replicate

in low copy in Anabaena. JIM GOLDEN tells us our suffering is over. His

laboratory wanted a high-copy-number shuttle vector to facilitate isolation

of shuttle vector plasmid DNA from Anabaena and to permit certain types of

genetic manipulations, such as the titration of regulatory factors.

Accordingly, they have isolated and sequenced a mutant pDU1 origin of

replication that replicates at a higher copy number in Anabanea.

    A high-copy-number mutation was obtained in the shuttle vector pCCB110

[Buikema WJ & Haselkorn R (1991). Genes Dev 5:321-330] by selection on

neomycin at 100 ug/ml. Colonies containing high-copy-number plasmids were

identified by a high yield of plasmid from heat lysis minipreps. The high-

copy-number ori was trimmed down to a minimum size that still provided strong

selection and stable maintenance in PCC 7120, and the resulting 3761-bp

fragment was sequenced (GenBank accession L23221). The sequenced region is

available as a SmaI fragment in pUC1819H3 (resulting in pAM1230) or

pBluescript (resulting in pAM1231). 

    The original high-copy-number shuttle vector, pAM832, was trimmed down to

produce pAM1011 and finally pAM1280. pAM1280 was modified to contain different

multiple cloning sites (MCS) and the lacZ' gene fragment. The resulting

plasmids, pAM1278 and pAM1279 (lacZ' MCS from pUC18 in both orientations) and

pAM1281 and pAM1282 (lacZ' MCS from pBluescript II SK+ in both orientations),

provide blue/white screening for inserts, and they have been tested for

efficient transformation of E. coli and conjugation into Anabaena PCC 7120.

The plasmids have not been fully characterized nor actually used yet for

cloning experiments, but in test conjugations exconjugants could be easily

selected for on plates containing neomycin at 50 ug/ml, which is double the

concentration Jim's lab uses for other pDU1-based shuttle vectors.

    Jim Golden, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station

    TX 77843-3258 U.S.A. (Tel) 409-845-9823, (Fax) 409-845-2891,

    (E-mail) JGolden@Bio.Tamu.Edu


      ANDREY DEMIDOV along with Alexander Borisov report on computer

simulations they have performed to assess the ability of different classes of

models to reproduce the observed characteristics of energy transfer in

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) complexes. They used two computational methods to

simulate energy migration in C-PC fragments [Biophys J (1993) 64:1375-1384].

The first relied on a system of three differential equations, each describing

the flow of energy amongst chromophores of the three types: alpha-84, beta-84,

or beta-155. The second method relied on a Monte Carlo approach to simulate

random walks of excitons between the chromophores. These approaches, using

structural data from C-PC of Agmenellum quadruplicatum, enabled them to

predict rates and channels of energy migration in the case of various C-PC

aggregates and to evaluate the sensitivity of migration rates to the screw

angle between adjoining trimers. By considering chromophores in random

orientations or in the actual orientations found in C-PC, they were able to

demonstrate that the actual orientations are nearly optimal for energy


      They used similar methods to determine the statistic of exciton jumps,

finding that jump statistics can be described by the function:

                          F = C (t/) exp(-t/)

where C is a constant and t and  are, respectively, the exciton

localization (jump) time and its averaged value for the three chromophore

types. Values of  were calculated for various aggregates [Biofizika (1993)


      They are now working on a new theory of calculation of fluorescence

polarization degree and absorption anisotropy of molecular complexes with

energy transfer. At present, they have examined C-PC beta-subunits and

monomers and have derived generally useful formulae that can be used

practically to calculate polarization data at steady-state and delta-pulse

excitations in the cases of double- and triple-chromophore complexes. The

theory considers light absorption and fluorescence by chromophores, energy

transfer between them, and their mutual orientations. Chromophores within

individual complexes are presumed to be rigidly positioned, and complexes are

randomly distributed and oriented in space, with no energy transfer amongst

them. The formulae take into account the angles between chromophore transition

dipole moments in the individual molecular complex and contain parameters

dependent upon chromophore spectroscopic features and rates of energy


      Andrey, a physicist, is eager to receive any advice and help that you

may care to proffer. He is particularly interested in raw material from C-PC

aggregates of A. quadruplicatum and Mastigocladus laminosus to feed his model.

He seeks, specifically: (a) fluorescence and absorption spectra, (b) emission

and excitation spectra of polarized fluorescence, (c) absorption anisotropy

spectra, (d) fluorescence depolarization and absorption anisotropy kinetics

excited by picosecond pulses, and (e) chromophore fluorescence quantum yields.

    Andrey Demidov, Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119899

    Moscow, RUSSIA. (E-mail) Demidov@Demidov.Phys.Msu.Su





Kim E, Kim H, Hong SP, Kang KH, Kho YH, Park YH (1993). Gene Organization

    and Primary Structure of a Ribosomal RNA Gene Cluster from Streptomyces

    griseus subsp griseus. [Anacystis]. Gene 132:21-31.

Martin W, Brinkmann H, Savonna C, Cerff R (1993). Evidence for a Chimeric

    Nature of Nuclear Genomes - Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic

    Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Sanangelatoni AM, Tiboni O (1993). The Chromosomal Location of Genes for

    Elongation Factor Tu and Ribosomal Protein-S10 in the Cyanobacterium

    Spirulina platensis Provides Clues to the Ancestral Organization of the

    str and S10 Operons in Prokaryotes. J Gen Microbiol 139:2579-2584.

Seckbach J, Ikan R, Ringelberg D, White D (1993). Sterols and Phylogeny of

    the Acidophilic Hot Springs Algae Cyanidium caldarium and Galdieria

    sulphuraria. Phytochemistry 34:1345-1349.

Demuth J, Neve H, Witzel KP (1993). Direct Electron Microscopy Study on the

    Morphological Diversity of Bacteriophage Populations in Lake

    Plussee.[cyanobacteria]. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3378-3384.

Jensen TE (1993). A Morphometric Study of Natural and Laboratory Grown

    Gloeotrichia Species. Microbios 74(301):219-226.

Shalapenok LS, Ilkevich YG (1993). Ultrastructural Characteristics of

    Chroococcoid Cyanobacteria Isolated from Black Sea Picoplankton.

    Microbiology-Engl Tr 62:99-104.

Shalapenok LS, Shalapenok AA (1993). Special Features of Ultrastructure and

    Spectral Characteristics of Phycoerythrin of Black Sea Picocyanobacteria

    in Culture. Microbiology-Engl Tr 62:68-72.

Wilson WH, Joint IR, Carr NG, Mann NH (1993). Isolation and Molecular

    Characterization of 5 Marine Cyanophages Propagated on Synechococcus Sp

    Strain WH7803. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3736-3743.

Lockhart PJ, Penny D, Hendy MD, Larkum ADW (1993). Is Prochlorothrix

    hollandica the Best Choice as a Prokaryotic Model for Higher Plant

    Chl-a/b Photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 37:61-68.

                             ****** ECOLOGY ******

Caumette P (1993). Ecology and Physiology of Phototrophic Bacteria and

    Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Marine Salterns.[cyanobacterial mats].

    Experientia 49:473-481.

Guerrero R, Ashen J, Sole M, Margulis L (1993). Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi

    nov. gen., nov. sp. - Variable-Diameter Composite Spirochete from

    Microbial Mats. Arch Microbiol 160:461-470.

Howard A (1993). SCUM - Simulation of Cyanobacterial Underwater Movement.

    Comput Appl Biosci 9:413-419.

Kromkamp J, Limbeek M (1993). Effect of Short-Term Variation in Irradiance

    on Light Harvesting and Photosynthesis of the Marine Diatom Skeletonema

    costatum - A Laboratory Study Simulating Vertical Mixing.[Oscillatoria].

    J Gen Microbiol 139:2277-2284.

Pinevich AV, Vepritskii AA, Gromov BV (1993). Biodiversity of Cyanobacteria

    (Foundations and Prospects, of Cognition and Preservation in Light of

    Ecological Problems in Russia). Microbiology-Engl Tr 62:253-261.

Waterbury JB, Valois FW (1993). Resistance to Co-occurring Phages Enables

    Marine Synechococcus Communities to Coexist with Cyanophages Abundant in

    Seawater. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3393-3399.

Badger MR, Pfanz H, Budel B, Heber U, Lange OL (1993). Evidence for the

    Functioning of Photosynthetic CO2-Concentrating Mechanisms in Lichens

    Containing Green Algal and Cyanobacterial Photobionts. Planta 191:57-70.

Hur JS, Wellburn AR (1993). Effects of Atmospheric SO2 on Azolla and

    Anabaena Symbiosis. Physiol Plant 88:65-72.

Palmqvist K (1993). Photosynthetic CO2-Use Efficiency in Lichens and Their

    Isolated Photobionts - The Possible Role of a CO2-Concentrating

    Mechanism. Planta 191:48-56.

S�derb�ck E, Bergman B (1993). The Nostoc-Gunnera Symbiosis - Carbon

    Fixation and Translocation. Physiol Plant 89:125-132.

                 ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES ******

Carmichael WW (1994). Toxins of Cyanobacteria. Sci Am 270:78-86.

Choi BW, Namikoshi M, Sun FR, Rinehart KL, Carmichael WW, Kaup AM, Evans

    WR, Beasley VR (1993). Isolation of Linear Peptides Related to the

    Hepatotoxins Nodularin and Microcystins. Tetrahedron Lett 34:7881-7884.

Falch BS, Konig GM, Wright AD, Sticher O, Ruegger H, Bernardinelli G

    (1993). Ambigol a and B - New Biologically Active Polychlorinated

    Aromatic Compounds from the Terrestrial Blue-Green Alga Fischerella

    ambigua. J Org Chem 58:6570-6575.

Falconer IR (1993). Paralytic Shellfish Poisons from Freshwater Blue-Green

    Algae - Comment. Med J Aust 159:423.

Harada K, Mayumi T, Shimada T, Suzuki M, Kondo F, Watanabe MF (1993).

    Occurrence of Four Depsipeptides, Aeruginopeptins, Together with

    Microcystins from Toxic Cyanobacteria. Tetrahedron Lett 34:6091-6094.

Harada K, Nagai H, Kimura Y, Suzuki M, Park HD, Watanabe MF, Luukkainen R,

    Sivonen K, Carmichael WW (1993). Liquid Chromatography/Mass

    Spectrometric Detection of Anatoxin-a, a Neurotoxin from Cyanobacteria.

    Tetrahedron 49:9251-9260.

Herrmann WA, Kohlpaintner CW (1993). Water-Soluble Ligands, Metal

    Complexes, and Catalysts - Synergism of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous

    Catalysis. [Blue-green alga]. Angew Chem Int Ed 32:1524-1544.

Humpage AR, Rositano J, Baker PD, Nicholson BC, Steffensen DA (1993).

    Paralytic Shellfish Poisons from Freshwater Blue-Green Algae. Med J Aust


James GD, Mills SD, Pattenden G (1993). Total Synthesis of Pukeleimide-A, a

    5-ylidenepyrrol-2(5H)-one from Blue Green Algae. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans

    1 NOV 7;(21):2581-2584.

Kangatharalingam N, Priscu JC (1993). Isolation and Verification of

    Anatoxin-A Producing Clones of Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb) de Breb from

    a Eutrophic Lake. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 12:127-130.

Kozhenkova EV, Bromov BV (1993). A biologically active compound from the

    blue-green alga Calothrix intricata Fritsch CALU 908. Algologia 3:23-27.

Li Y, Llewellyn L, Moczydlowski E (1993). Biochemical and Immunochemical

    Comparison of Saxiphilin and Transferrin, Two Structurally Related

    Plasma Proteins from Rana catesbeiana. [Aphanizomenon]. Mol Pharmacol


Linton CJ, Wright SJL (1993). Volatile Organic Compounds - Microbiological

    Aspects and Some Technological Implications - Review. J Appl Bacteriol


Luukkainen R, Sivonen K, Namikoshi M, Fardig M, Rinehart KL, Niemela SI

    (1993). Isolation and Identification of 8 Microcystins from 13

    Oscillatoria agardhii Strains and Structure of a New Microcystin. Appl

    Environ Microbiol 59:2204-2209.

Martin C, Oberer L, Ino T, Konig WA, Busch M, Weckesser J (1993).

    Cyanopeptolins, New Depsipeptides from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis

    sp. PCC 7806. J Antibiot 46:1550-1556.

Mori Y (1993). Synthesis of Acyclic 1, 3-Polyols and Its Application to

    Structural Study of Natural Products.[polymethoxy-1-alkenes from

    cyanobacteria]. Yakugaku Zasshi-J Pharm Soc J 113:438-453.

Pattenden G, Thom SM (1993). Naturally Occurring Linear Fused

    Thiazoline-Thiazole Containing Metabolites - Total Synthesis of

    (-)-Didehydromirabazole-A, a Cytotoxic Alkaloid from Blue Green Algae. J

    Chem Soc Perkin Trans I JUL 21;(14):1629-1636.

Patterson GML, Bolis CM (1993). Regulation of Scytophycin Accumulation in

    Cultures of Scytonema ocellatum. 1. Physical Factors. Appl Microbiol

    Biotechnol 40:375-381.

Proteau PJ, Gerwick WH, Garciapichel F, Castenholz R (1993). The Structure

    of Scytonemin, an Ultraviolet Sunscreen Pigment from the Sheaths of

    Cyanobacteria. Experientia 49:825-829.

Rudolphbohner S, Wu JT, Moroder L (1993). Identification and

    Characterization of Microcystin-LY from Microcystis aeruginosa

    (Strain-298). Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 374:635-640.

Schrader KK, Blevins WT (1993). Geosmin-Producing Species of Streptomyces

    and Lyngbya from Aquaculture Ponds. Can J Microbiol 39:834-840.

Shirahashi H, Murakami N, Watanabe M, Nagatsu A, Sakakibara J, Tokuda H,

    Nishino H, Iwashima A (1993). Isolation and Identification of

    Anti-Tumor-Promoting Principles from the Fresh-Water Cyanobacterium

    Phormidium-tenue. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 41:1664-1666.

Sim ATR, Mudge LM (1993). Protein Phosphatase Activity in Cyanobacteria -

    Consequences for Microcystin Toxicity Analysis. Toxicon 31:1179-1186.

Stocker A, Ruttimann A, Woggon WD (1993). Identification of the

    Tocopherol-Cyclase in the Blue-Green Algae Anabaena variabilis Kutzing

    (Cyanobacteria). Helv Chim Acta 76(4):1729-1738.

Stotts RR, Namikoshi M, Haschek WM, Rinehart KL, Carmichael WW, Dahlem AM,

    Beasley VR (1993). Structural Modifications Imparting Reduced Toxicity

    in Microcystins from Microcystis spp. Toxicon 31:783-789.

Tsukamoto S, Painuly P, Young KA, Yang XM, Shimizu Y, Cornell L (1993).

    Microcystilide-A - A Novel Cell-Differentiation-Promoting Depsipeptide

    from Microcystis aeruginosa NO-15-1840. J Am Chem Soc 115:11046-11047.

Zotou A, Jefferies TM, Brough PA, Gallagher T (1993). Determination of

    Anatoxin-A and Homoanatoxin in Blue Green Algal Extracts by

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography Mass

    Spectrometry. Analyst 118:753-758.

    ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES (Physiological Effects) ******

Aldridge WN (1993). The Esterases - Perspectives and Problems. Chem Biol

    Interact 87:5-13.

Andersen RJ, Luu HA, Chen DZX, Holmes CFB, Kent ML, Leblanc M, Taylor FJRM,

    Williams DE (1993). Chemical and Biological Evidence Links Microcystins

    to Salmon Netpen Liver Disease. Toxicon 31:1315-1323.

Baquet A, Gaussin V, Bollen M, Stalmans W, Hue L (1993). Mechanism of

    Activation of Liver Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase by Cell

    Swelling.[microcystin-LR]. Eur J Biochem 217:1083-1089.

Brandonisio O, Maggi P, Panaro MA, Marangi A, Marzio R, Angarano G (1993).

    A Cyanobacterium-like Body Found in the Stools of an HIV+ Patient with

    Diarrhoea. Eur J Epidemiol 9:453-454.

Connor BA, Shlim DR, Scholes JV, Rayburn JL, Reidy J, Rajah R (1993).

    Pathologic Changes in the Small Bowel in 9 Patients with Diarrhea

    Associated with a Coccidia-Like Body. Ann Intern Med 119:377-382.

Dosemeci A, Reese TS (1993). Inhibition of Endogenous Phosphatase in a

    Postsynaptic Density Fraction Allows Extensive Phosphorylation of the

    Major Postsynaptic Density Protein.[microcystin-LR]. J Neurochem


Endean R, Monks SA, Griffith JK, Llewellyn LE (1993). Apparent

    Relationships Between Toxins Elaborated by the Cyanobacterium

    Trichodesmium erythraeum and Those Present in the Flesh of the

    Narrow-Barred Spanish Mackerel Scomberomorus commersoni. Toxicon


Heyworth MF (1993). Cyanobacterium-Like Cyclospora Species. N Engl J Med


Hoge CW, Shlim DR, Echeverria P (1993). Cyanobacterium-Like Cyclospora

    Species. N Engl J Med 329:1504.

Holen I, Gordon PB, Seglen PO (1993). Inhibition of Hepatocytic Autophagy

    by Okadaic Acid and Other Protein Phosphatase

    Inhibitors.[Microcystin-LR]. Eur J Biochem 215:113-122.

Holmes CFB, Boland MP (1993). Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase-1 and

    Phosphatase-2A - Two of the Major Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    Involved in Cellular Regulation. Curr Opin Struct Biol 3:934-943.

Mulkey RM, Herron CE, Malenka RC (1993). An Essential Role for Protein

    Phosphatases in Hippocampal Long-Term Depression.[Microcystin-LR].

    Science 261:1051-1055.

Oxenrider KA, Rasche ME, Thorsteinsson MV, Kennelly PJ (1993). Inhibition

    of an Archaeal Protein Phosphatase Activity by Okadaic Acid,

    Microcystin-LR, or Calyculin-A. FEBS Lett 331:291-295.

Quinn RJ, Taylor C, Suganuma M, Fujiki H (1993). The Conserved Acid Binding

    Domain Model of Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase-1 and Phosphatase-2A -

    Molecular Modelling Aspects.[Microcystin-LR]. Bioorg Medicinal Chem

    Letter 3:1029-1034.

Runnegar MT, Kong SM, Berndt N (1993). Protein Phosphatase Inhibition and

    Invivo Hepatotoxicity of Microcystins. Am J Physiol 265(2 Part


Sterling CR, Ortega YR (1993). Cyanobacterium-Like Cyclospora Species -

    Reply. N Engl J Med 329:1505.

Villard O, Himy R, Brogard C, Kremer M (1993). Cyanobacterium-Like

    Body-Associated Diarrhea. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 17:401-402.

                    ****** PHYSIOLOGY and METABOLISM ******

Buchholz BEE, Hayes PK, Walsby AE (1993). The Distribution of the Outer Gas

    Vesicle Protein, GvpC, on the Anabaena Gas Vesicle, and Its Ratio to

    GvpA. J Gen Microbiol 139:2353-2363.

Donkor VA, Amewowor DHAK, Hader DP (1993). Effects of Tropical Solar

    Radiation on the Motility of Filamentous Cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol

    Ecol 12:143-148.

Famiglietti M, Hochkoeppler A, Luisi PL (1993). Surfactant-Induced Hydrogen

    Production in Cyanobacteria. Biotechnol Bioeng 42:1014-1018.

Geisler M, Richter J, Schumann J (1993). Molecular Cloning of a P-Type

    ATPase Gene from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 -

    Homology to Eukaryotic Ca2+-ATPases. J Mol Biol 234:1284-1289.

Goncharova IV, Gerasimenko LM, Zavarzin GA, Ushatinskaya GT (1993).

    Formation of Mineral Phosphate Microtubes in the Presence of Halophilic

    Cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes. Curr Microbiol 27:187-190.

Kataoka H, Watanabe M (1993). Negative Phototropism in Vaucheria terrestris

    Regulated by Calcium. 3. The Role of Calcium Characterized by Use of a

    High-Power Argon-Ion Laser as the Source of Unilateral Blue Light.

    [Anabaena]. Plant Cell Physiol 34:737-744.

Laboure AM, Briat JF (1993). Uptake of Iron from Ferric Citrate in the

    Cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC6803. C R Acad Sci [III] 316:661-666.

Nagaya M, Aiba H, Mizuno T (1993). Cloning of a Sensory-Kinase-Encoding

    Gene That Belongs to the 2-Component Regulatory Family from the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942. Gene 131:119-124.

Nagaya M, Aiba H, Mizuno T (1993). A Cyanobacterial Gene Encoding a Protein

    with Extensive Homology to Mammalian Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate

    Synthetase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 57:1958-1959.

Ohmori K, Ohmori M (1993). Effect of cAMP on Cellular ATP Concentration in

    the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. J Gen Appl Microbiol Tokyo


Rendon JL, Mendoza-Hernandez G (1993). Effect of Inorganic Phosphate on the

    Self-Associating Properties of Glutathione Reductase from Spirulina

    maxima. Biochem Mol Biol Int 31:701-708.

Schlichting R, Bothe H (1993). The Cyanelles (Organelles of a Low

    Evolutionary Scale) Possess a Phosphate-Translocator and a

    Glucose-Carrier in Cyanophora Paradoxa. Bot Acta 106:428-434.

Yamada N, Murakami N, Morimoto T, Sakakibara J (1993). Auto-Growth

    Inhibitory Substance from the Fresh-Water Cyanobacterium Phormidium

    tenue. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 41:1863-1865.

                ****** LIPIDS and ENVELOPE COMPONENTS ******

Cohen Z, Reungjitchachawali M, Siangdung W, Tanticharoen M, Heimer YM

    (1993). Herbicide-Resistant Lines of Microalgae - Growth and Fatty Acid

    Composition. Phytochemistry 34:973-978.

Filalimouhim R, Cornet JF, Fontaine T, Fournet B, Dubertret G (1993).

    Production, Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of the

    Exopolysaccharide of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Biotechnol

    Lett 15:567-572.

Gornicki P, Scappino LA, Haselkorn R (1993). Genes for 2 Subunits of Acetyl

    Coenzyme a Carboxylase of Anabaena Sp Strain PCC 7120 - Biotin

    Carboxylase and Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein. J Bacteriol


Hansel A, Schmid A, Tadros MH, Juergens UJ (1994). Isolation and

    characterization of porin from the outer membrane of Synechococcus PCC

    6301. Arch Microbiol (in press).

Higashi S, Murata N (1993). An In Vivo Study of Substrate Specificities of

    Acyl-Lipid Desaturases and Acyltransferases in Lipid Synthesis in

    Synechocystis PCC6803. Plant Physiol 102:1275-1278.

Jones AL, Harwood JL (1993). Lipid Metabolism in the Brown Marine Algae

    Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. [Anacystis nidulans]. J Exp

    Bot 44:1203-1210.

Kaya K, Sano T, Watanabe MM, Shiraishi F, Ito H (1993). Thioico-Acid Ester

    in Sulfolipid Isolated from Freshwater Picoplankton Cyanobacterium,

    Synechococcus Sp. Biochim Biophys Acta 1169:39-45.

Murakami N, Shirahashi H, Nagatsu A, Sakakibara J (1993). Studies on

    Glycolipids. 6. New Acyl-Distributed Glyceroglycolipids from the

    Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae f flos-aquae. Chem

    Pharm Bull Tokyo 41:1177-1179.

Wada H, Avelangemacherel MH, Murata N (1993). The desA Gene of the

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803 Is the Structural Gene

    for �-12 Desaturase. J Bacteriol 175:6056-6058.

Wu QY, Yin S, Sheng GY, Fu JM (1993). Distribution and Comparison of

    Steranes from Blue-Green Algae Under Different Simulated Conditions. Sci

    China Ser B 36:872-879.

                         ****** STRESS RESPONSES ******

Audholia S, Goyal D, Saxena RK (1993). Zinc Tolerance in Phormidium

    uncinatum. Folia Microbiol Prague 38(4):341-344.

Falkner G, Falkner R, Wagner F (1993). Adaptive Phosphate Uptake Behaviour

    of the Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans - Analysis by a Proportional

    Flow-Force Relation. C R Acad Sci [III] 316:784-787.

Panoff JM (1993). Control of a Locus That Is Required for Growth of

    Anabaena PCC7120 at Low Temperature. Curr Microbiol 27:273-276.

Scanlan DJ, Mann NH, Carr NG (1993). The Response of the Picoplanktonic  

    Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Species WH7803 to Phosphate

    Starvation Involves a Protein Homologous to the Periplasmic

    Phosphate-Binding Protein of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 10:181-191.

Vigh L, Los DA, Horvath I, Murata N (1993). The Primary Signal in the

    Biological Perception of Temperature - Pd-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of

    Membrane Lipids Stimulated the Expression of the desA Gene in

    Synechocystis PCC6803. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:9090-9094.

Visviki I, Rachlin JW (1994). Acute and Chronic Exposure of Dunaliella

    salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to Copper and Cadmium - Effects on

    Ultrastructure. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 26:154-162.

                        ****** CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ******

Abarzua S, Altenburger R, Callies R, Grimme LH, Mayer A, Leibfritz D,

    Schiewer U (1993). Ammonium Rhythm in Cultures of the Cyanobacterium

    Microcystis Firma. Physiol Plant 89:659-663.

Chen TH, Pen SY, Huang TC (1993). Induction of Nitrogen-Fixing Circadian

    Rhythm Synechococcus RF-1 by Light Signals. Plant Sci 92:179-182.

Hall JC, Rosbash M (1993). Oscillating Molecules and How They Move

    Circadian Clocks Across Evolutionary Boundaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Huang TC, Wang ST, Grobbelaar N (1993). Circadian Rhythm Mutants of the

    Prokaryotic Synechococcus RF-1. Curr Microbiol 27:249-254.

Kondo T, Strayer CA, Kulkarni RD, Taylor W, Ishiura M, Golden SS, Johnson

    CH (1993). Circadian Rhythms in Prokaryotes - Luciferase as a Reporter

    of Circadian Gene Expression in Cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA



Cohenkupiec R, Gurevitz M, Zilberstein A (1993). Expression of glnA in the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942 Is Initiated from a

    Single nif-Like Promoter Under Various Nitrogen Conditions. J Bacteriol


Lara C, Rodriguez R, Guerrero MG (1993). Nitrate Transport in the

    Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. Physiol Plant 89:582-587.

Martinez J, Azam F (1993). Aminopeptidase Activity in Marine Chroococcoid

    Cyanobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3701-3707.

Paneque A, Munozcenteno MC, Ruiz MT, Cejudo FJ (1993). Nitrate Permease

    from Azotobacter chroococcum. [Synechococcus]. Physiol Plant 89:592-595.

Schmidt J, Bubunenko M, Subramanian AR (1993). A Novel Operon Organization

    Involving the Genes for Chorismate Synthase (Aromatic Biosynthesis

    Pathway) and Ribosomal GTPase Center Proteins (L11, L1, L10, L12:

    rplKAJL) in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. J Biol Chem


Singh S (1993). Role of Glutamine Synthetase, Glutamine and NH4+ in the

    Regulation of NO2- Uptake in the Cyanobiont Nostoc ANTH. J Plant Physiol


Suzuki I, Sugiyama T, Omata T (1993). Primary Structure and Transcriptional

    Regulation of the Gene for Nitrite Reductase from the Cyanobacterium

    Synechococcus PCC 7942. Plant Cell Physiol 34:1311-1320.

Watt DA, Amory AM, Cresswell CF (1993). Constitutive and Inducible Aspects

    of Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.[Synechococcus].

    Physiol Plant 89:507-511.

Bauer CC, Scappino L, Haselkorn R (1993). Growth of the Cyanobacterium

    Anabaena on Molecular Nitrogen - NifJ Is Required When Iron Is Limited.

    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8812-8816.

Bergman B, Siddiqui PJA, Carpenter EJ, Peschek GA (1993). Cytochrome

    Oxidase - Subcellular Distribution and Relationship to Nitrogenase

    Expression in the Nonheterocystous Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

    thiebautii. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3239-3244.

Singh HN, Chakravarty D, Rao KS, Singh AK (1993). Vanadium Requirement for

    Growth on N2 or Nitrate as Nitrogen Source in a Tungsten-Resistant Mutant

    of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc-muscorum. J Basic Microbiol 33(3):201-205.

Thiel T (1993). Characterization of Genes for an Alternative Nitrogenase in

    the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. J Bacteriol 175:6276-6286.

Troshina OY, Yakunin AF, Gogotov IN (1992). Growth and Activity of

    Nitrogen-Metabolism Enzymes in Free-Living Cultures of Anabaena Azollae

    and Its Mutants Resistant to Ethylenediamine. Microbiology-Engl Tr


Black TA, Cai YP, Wolk CP (1993). Spatial Expression and Autoregulation of

    hetR, a Gene Involved in the Control of Heterocyst Development in

    Anabaena. Mol Microbiol 9:77-84.

Madan AP, Nierzwicki-Bauer SA (1993). In situ Detection of Transcripts for

    Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase in Cyanobacterial Heterocysts. J

    Bacteriol 175:7301-7306.

Sarma TA, Khattar JIS (1993). Akinete Differentiation in Phototrophic,

    Photoheterotrophic and Chemoheterotrophic Conditions in Anabaena

    torulosa. Folia Microbiol Prague 38(4):335-340.

Wei TF, Ramasubramanian TS, Pu F, Golden JW (1993). Anabaena Sp Strain

    PCC 7120 bifA Gene Encoding a Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Protein

    Cloned by Invivo Transcriptional Interference Selection. J Bacteriol


Zhang CC (1993). A Gene Encoding a Protein Related to Eukaryotic Protein

    Kinases from the Filamentous Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PCC 7120. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:11840-11844.

                        ****** CARBON METABOLISM ******

Amichay D, Levitz R, Gurevitz M (1993). Construction of a Synechocystis

    PCC6803 Mutant Suitable for the Study of Variant Hexadecameric Ribulose

    Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase Enzymes. Plant Mol Biol 23:465-476.

Badger MR, Schreiber U (1993). Effects of Inorganic Carbon Accumulation on

    Photosynthetic Oxygen Reduction and Cyclic Electron Flow in the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942. Photosynth Res 37:177-191.

Friedberg D, Jager KM, Kessel M, Silman NJ, Bergman B (1993). Rubisco But

    Not Rubisco Activase Is Clustered in the Carboxysomes of the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 - Mud-Induced Carboxysomeless

    Mutants. Mol Microbiol 9:1193-1201.

Hubbs AE, Roy H (1993). Assembly of Invitro Synthesized Large Subunits into

    Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase - Formation and Discharge of

    an L8-Like Species. J Biol Chem 268:13519-13525.

Lee GJ, Kostov RV, McFadden BA (1993). A facile method to determine the

    CO2/O2 specificity factor for ribulose biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.

    Photosyn Res 37:81-86.

Lee GJ, McDonald KA, Mcfadden BA (1993). Leucine-332 Influences the CO2/O2

    Specificity Factor of Ribulose-1, 5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase

    from Anacystis nidulans. Protein Sci 2:1147-1154.

Newman J, Gutteridge S (1993). The X-Ray Structure of Synechococcus

    Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase-Activated Quaternary Complex

    at 2.2-angstrom Resolution. J Biol Chem 268:25876-25886.

Paul K, Morell MK, Andrews TJ (1993). Amino-Terminal Truncations of the

    Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Small Subunit Influence Catalysis and

    Subunit Interactions. Plant Physiol 102:1129-1137.

Shiraiwa Y, Goyal A, Tolbert NE (1993). Alkalization of the Medium by

    Unicellular Green Algae During Uptake of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon.

    Plant Cell Physiol 34:649-657.

Sultemeyer D, Schmidt C, Fock HP (1993). Carbonic Anhydrases in Higher

    Plants and Aquatic Microorganisms. Physiol Plant 88:179-190.

Turpin DH (1993). Phytoplankton Growth and CO2. Nature 363:678.

Williams TG, Colman B (1993). Identification of Distinct Internal and

    External Isozymes of Carbonic Anhydrase in Chlorella saccharophila.

    [Synechococcus]. Plant Physiol 103:943-948.

                         ****** PHOTOSYNTHESIS ******

Frackowiak D, Skibinski A, Zelent B, Leblanc RM (1993). Study of Energy

    Transfer in the Antenna System Isolated from Mastigocladus laminosus

    Cohn. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 197:28-33.

Govindjee, Snel JFH, Devos OJ, Vanrensen JJS (1993). Antagonistic Effects

    of Light-I and Light-II on Chlorophyll-A Fluorescence Yield and P700

    Turnover as Monitors of Carbon Dioxide Depletion in Intact Algal and

    Cyanobacterial Cells. Physiol Plant 89:143-148.

Komenda J, Masojidek J, Bocek J, Prasil O (1993). Reversible and

    irreversible changes of fluorescence parameters during photoinhibition

    in the Synechococcus elongatus cells. Photosynthetica 28:249-251.

Lu R-Z, Liu B (1993). Fluorescence emission, energy transfer and structure

    of phycobilisomes from Nostoc flagelliforme Born. et Flah. during

    dissociation. Photosynthetica 28:253-258.

Miki K, Tamada T, Nishida H, Inaka K, Yasui A, Deruiter PE, Eker APM

    (1993). Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Studies of

    Photolyase (Photoreactivating Enzyme) from the Cyanobacterium Anacystis

    nidulans. J Mol Biol 233:167-169.

Misra HS, Tuli R (1993). Photosystem II Independent Carbon Dioxide Fixation

    in Plectonema boryanum During Photoautotrophic Growth Under Nitrogen

    Fixation Conditions. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 2:101-104.

Murakami A, Fujita Y (1993). Regulation of Stoichiometry Between PSI and

    PSII in Response to Light Regime for Photosynthesis Observed with

    Synechocystis PCC 6714 - Relationship Between Redox State of Cyt b6-F

    Complex and Regulation of PSI Formation. Plant Cell Physiol


Murthy SDS, Mohanty P (1993). Mercury Ions Inhibit Photosynthetic Electron

    Transport at Multiple Sites in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus-6301. J

    Biosciences 18:355-360.

Oquist G, Hurry VM, Huner NPA (1993). The Temperature Dependence of the

    Redox State of QA and Susceptibility of Photosynthesis to

    Photoinhibition. Plant Physiol Biochem 31:683-691.

Ploug H, Lassen C, Jorgensen BB (1993). Action Spectra of Microalgal

    Photosynthesis and Depth Distribution of Spectral Scalar Irradiance in a

    Coastal Marine Sediment of Limfjorden, Denmark. FEMS Microbiol Ecol


Post AF, Ohad I, Warner KM, Bullerjahn GS (1993). Energy Distribution

    Between Photosystem I and Photosystem II in the Photosynthetic

    Prokaryote Prochlorothrix-hollandica Involves a Chlorophyll-a/b Antenna

    Which Associates with Photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 1144:374-384.

Reuter W, Muller C (1993). Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of

    Cyanobacteria to Light and CO2. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol 21:3-27.

Shyam R, Raghavendra AS, Sane PV (1993). Role of Dark Respiration in

    Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis and Its Reactivation in the

    Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. Physiol Plant 88:446-452.

Smith D, Howe CJ (1993). The Distribution of Photosystem I and

    Photosystem II Polypeptides Between the Cytoplasmic and Thylakoid

    Membranes of Cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 110:341-347.

                         ****** PHOTOSYSTEM I ******

Cohen Y, Chitnis VP, Nechushtai R, Chitnis PR (1993). Stable Assembly of

    PsaE into Cyanobacterial Photosynthetic Membranes Is Dependent on the

    Presence of Other Accessory Subunits of Photosystem I. Plant Mol Biol


Fork DC, Herbert SK (1993). Electron Transport and Photophosphorylation by

    Photosystem I In vivo in Plants and Cyanobacteria. Photosynth Res


Golbeck JH (1993). The Structure of Photosystem I. Curr Opin Struct Biol


Holzwarth AR, Schatz G, Brock H, Bittersmann E (1993). Energy Transfer and

    Charge Separation Kinetics in Photosystem I. 1. Picosecond Transient

    Absorption and Fluorescence Study of Cyanobacterial Photosystem I

    Particles. Biophys J 64:1813-1826.

Ikegami I, Itoh S, Warren PG, Golbeck JH (1993). Reconstitution of the

    Photosystem I Secondary Quinone Acceptor (A1) in the P700-F(X) Core

    Isolated from Synechococcus PCC 6301. Plant Cell Physiol 34:849-853.

Kaurov YN, Aksyonova GE, Lovyagina ER, Veselova TV, Ivanov II (1993).

    Thermally-Induced Delayed Luminescence from PS I in Membranes of

    Thermophilic Cyanobacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1143:97-103.

Kruip J, Boekema EJ, Bald D, Boonstra AF, Rogner M (1993). Isolation and

    Structural Characterization of Monomeric and Trimeric Photosystem I

    Complexes (P700-FA/FB and P700-FX) from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis

    PCC 6803. J Biol Chem 268:23353-23360.

Lockau W, Nitschke W (1993). Photosystem I and Its Bacterial Counterparts.

    Physiol Plant 88:372-381.

Maeda H, Watanabe T, Sonoike K (1993). Chemical Environment Heterogeneity

    Around the 2 Chlorophyll-a' Molecules in Photosystem I. J Photochem

    Photobiol B-Biol 20:139-143.

Nyhus KJ, Thiel T, Pakrasi HB (1993). Targeted interruption of the psaA and

    psaB genes encoding the reaction-centre proteins of Photosystem I in the

    filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. Molec

    Microbiol 9:979-988.

Nyhus KJ, Thiel T, Pakrasi HB (1993). Targeted Interruption of the psaA and

    psaB Genes Encoding the Reaction-Centre Proteins of Photosystem I in the

    Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC-29413. Mol Microbiol


Obokata J, Mikami K, Hayashida N, Nakamura M, Sugiura M (1993). Molecular

    Heterogeneity of Photosystem I - psaD, psaE, psaF, psaH, and psaL Are

    All Present in Isoforms in Nicotiana spp.[Synechocystis PCC6803]. Plant

    Physiol 102:1259-1267.

Prisner TF, McDermott AE, Un S, Norris JR, Thurnauer MC, Griffin RG (1993).

    Measurement of the g-tensor of the P700+ - Signal from Deuterated

    Cyanobacterial Photosystem I Particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Shubin VV, Tsuprun VL, Bezsmertnaya IN, Karapetyan NV (1993). Trimeric

    Forms of the Photosystem I Reaction Center Complex Pre-Exist in the

    Membranes of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. FEBS Lett


Weber N, Strotmann H (1993). On the Function of Subunit-PsaE in Chloroplast

    Photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 1143:204-210.

Yu L, Zhao JD, Muhlenhoff U, Bryant DA, Golbeck JH (1993). PsaE Is Required

    for In Vivo Cyclic Electron Flow Around Photosystem I in the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp-PCC 7002. Plant Physiol 103:171-180.

Zhao J, Snyder WB, Muhlenhoff U, Rhiel E, Warren PV, Golbeck JH, Bryant DA

    (1993). Cloning and Characterization of the psaE Gene of the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp PCC 7002 - Characterization of a psaE

    Mutant and Overproduction of the Protein in Escherichia coli. Mol

    Microbiol 9:183-194.

                          ****** PHOTOSYSTEM II ******

[Proceedings] (1993). FESPP Workshop on the Environmental Factors Affecting

    Photosystem 2 (Szeged, 1992). Photosynthetica 28:162-288.

Boerner RJ, Barry BA (1993). Isotopic labeling and EPR spectroscopy show

    that a tyrosine residue is the terminal electron donor, Z, in

    manganese-depleted photosystem II preparations. J Biol Chem 268:17151-.

Carpenter SD, Ohad I, Vermaas WFJ (1993). Analysis of Chimeric

    Spinach/Cyanobacterial CP43 Mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 - The

    Chlorophyll-Protein CP43 Affects the Water-Splitting System of

    Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta 1144:204-212.

Clarke AK, Hurry VM, Gustafsson P, Oquist G (1993). Two Functionally

    Distinct Forms of the Photosystem II Reaction-Center Protein D1 in the

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA


Clarke AK, Soitamo A, Gustafsson P, Oquist G (1993). Rapid Interchange

    Between Two Distinct Forms of Cyanobacterial Photosystem II

    Reaction-Center Protein-D1 in Response to Photoinhibition. Proc Natl

    Acad Sci USA 90:9973-9977.

Eggers B, Vermaas W (1993). Truncation of the D2 Protein in Synechocystis

    sp. PCC 6803 - A Role of the C-Terminal Domain of D2 in Photosystem II

    Function and Stability. Biochemistry 32:11419-11427.

Elanskaya IV, Brown MN, Gadziev AG, Shestakov SV (1993). Mutational

    Analysis of the Genes Encoding the Photosystem II Proteins in

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803. Genetika 29:1620-1629.

Ermakova SY, Elanskaya IV, Kallies KU, Weihe A, B�rner T, Shestakov SV

    (1993). Cloning and Sequencing of Mutant psbB Genes of the

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Photosynth Res 37:139-146.

Fotinou C, Kokkinidis M, Fritzsch G, Haase W, Michel H, Ghanotakis DF

    (1993). Characterization of a Photosystem II Core and Its 3-Dimensional

    Crystals. Photosynth Res 37:41-48.

Han K, Katoh S (1993). Different Localization of 2 Ca2+ in Spinach

    Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Membranes - Evidence for Involvement of

    Only One Ca2+ in Oxygen Evolution.[Synechococcus]. Plant Cell Physiol


Johnson CH, Schmidt GW (1993). The psbB Gene Cluster of the Chlamydomonas

    reinhardtii Chloroplast - Sequence and Transcriptional Analyses of psbN

    and psbH. Plant Mol Biol 22:645-658.

Kloos R, Stevens E, Oettmeier W (1993). Complete Sequence of One Copy of

    the psba Gene from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

    Elongatus. Z Naturforsch C 48:799-802.

Kretschmann H, Witt HT (1993). Chemical Reduction of the Water Splitting

    Enzyme System of Photosynthesis and Its Light-Induced Reoxidation

    Characterized by Optical and Mass Spectrometric Measurements. Biochim

    Biophys Acta 1144:331-345.

Kuhn MG, Vermaas WFJ (1993). Deletion Mutations in a Long Hydrophilic Loop

    in the Photosystem II Chlorophyll-Binding Protein CP43 in the

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC6803. Plant Mol Biol 23:123-133.

Kulkarni RD, Mueller UW, Golden SS (1993). Nucleotide Sequence of psbB from

    Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942. Biochim Biophys Acta 1173:329-332.

Li RX, Golden SS (1993). Enhancer Activity of Light-Responsive Regulatory

    Elements in the Untranslated Leader Regions of Cyanobacterial psbA

    Genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:11678-11682.

Mannan RM, Pakrasi HB (1993). Dark Heterotrophic Growth Conditions Result

    in an Increase in the Content of Photosystem II Units in the Filamentous

    Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.  Plant Physiol


Mayes SR, Dallachiesa M, Zhang ZH, Barber J (1993). The Genes aroA and trnQ

    Are Located Upstream of psbO in the Chromosome of Synechocystis 6803.

    FEBS Lett 325:255-261. Correction 327:123.

Meunier PC, Bendall DS (1993). On the Rates of Cyclic Electron Transport

    Around Photosystem II in the Presence of Donor Side Limitation.

    Photosynth Res 37:147-158.

Misra HS, Desai TS (1993). Involvement of Acceptor Side Components of PSII

    in the Regulatory Mechanism of Plectonema boryanum Grown

    Photoautotrophically Under Diazotrophic Condition. Biochem Biophys Res

    Commun 194:1001. Correction 197:350.

Mohanty P, Hayashi H, Papageorgiou GC, Murata N (1993). Stabilization of

    the Mn-cluster of the oxygen-evolving complex by glycinebetaine. Biochim

    Biophys Acta 1144:92-.

Pistorius EK (1993). The Identity of the Water Oxidizing Enzyme in

    Photosystem II Is Still Controversial. Physiol Plant 87:624-631.

Ponticos M, Shipton CA, de las Rivas J, Barber J (1993). Two D1 protein

    degradation patterns in isolated photosystem 2 core and reaction centre

    complexes.Photosynthetica 28:215-224.

Shen JR, Inoue Y (1993). Cellular Localization of Cytochrome c550 - Its

    Specific Association with Cyanobacterial Photosystem II. J Biol Chem


Singh DP, Sharma SK, Bisen PS (1993). Differential Action of Hg2+ and Cd2+

    on the Phycobilisomes and Chlorophyll-a Fluorescence, and Photosystem II

    Dependent Electron Transport in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae.

    Biometals 6:125-132.

Styring S, Davidsson L, Tommos C, Vermaas W, Vass I, Svensson B (1993).

    Structure of redox components in Photosystem 2 studied with computer

    modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and EPR spectroscopy.

    Photosynthetica 28:225-241.

Tang XS, Chisholm DA, Dismukes GC, Brudvig GW, Diner BA (1993).

    Spectroscopic Evidence from Site-Directed Mutants of Synechocystis

    PCC6803 in Favor of a Close Interaction Between Histidine-189 and

    Redox-Active Tyrosine-1608 Both of Polypeptide D2 of the Photosystem II

    Reaction Center. Biochemistry 32:13742-13748.

                 ****** PHYCOBILISOMES and PIGMENTS ******

Apt KE, Hoffman NE, Grossman AR (1993). The gamma-Subunit of R-phyco-

    erythrin and Its Possible Mode of Transport into the Plastid of Red

    Algae. J Biol Chem 268:16208-16215.

Betz M, Ruegsegger U, Esteban AM, Sidler WA, Zuber H (1993). Reconstitution

    of the Core Complex (alpha-beta)3APC LC8.9 of the Phycobilisome from

    Mastigocladus laminosus Using the LC8.9 Linker Polypeptide Overexpressed

    in Escherichia coli. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 374:435-443.

Demidov AA, Borisov AYu (1993). Computer Simulation of Energy Migration in

    the C-Phycocyanin of the Blue-Green Algae Agmenellum quadruplicatum.

    Biophys J 64:1375-1384.

Demidov AA, Borisov AYu (1993). Numerical Modeling of Energy Migration in

    C-Phycocyanin of the Blue-Green Alga Agmenellum quadruplicatum.

    Biofizika 38:133-143.

Dubbs JM, Bryant DA (1993). Organization and Transcription of the Genes

    Encoding 2 Differentially Expressed Phycocyanins in the Cyanobacterium

    Pseudanabaena Sp PCC 7409. Photosynth Res 36:169-183.

Erokhina LG (1992). Spectral Effects of Chromatic Adaptation of

    Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria Growing on Different Nitrogen Sources.

    Microbiology-Engl Tr 61:673-679.

Ficner R, Huber R (1993). Refined Crystal Structure of Phycoerythrin from

    Porphyridium cruentum at 0.23-nm Resolution and Localization of the

    gamma Subunit. Eur J Biochem 218:103-106.

Gottschalk L, Lottspeich F, Scheer H (1993). Reconstitution of

    Allophycocyanin from Mastigocladus laminosus with Isolated Linker

    Polypeptide. Photochem Photobiol 58:761-767.

Grossman AR, Schaefer MR, Chiang GG, Collier JL (1993). The Phycobilisome,

    a Light-Harvesting Complex Responsive to Environmental Conditions.

    Microbiol Rev 57:725-749.

Hong Q, Zhao KH, Scheer H (1993). Two Different Types of Photochemistry in

    Phycoerythrocyanin alpha-Subunit. Photochem Photobiol 58:745-747.

Patnaik J, Swain N, Adhikary SP (1993). Differential Response of Two

    Species of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena to Ultraviolet (UV-C)

    Irradiation. J Basic Microbiol 33(6):427-432.

Thomas BA, Bricker TM, Klotz AV (1993). Post-Translational Methylation of

    Phycobilisomes and Oxygen Evolution Efficiency in Cyanobacteria. Biochim

    Biophys Acta 1143:104-108.

Xia AD, Zhu JC, Wu HJ, Jiang LJ, Zhang XY, Sudha M, Sai PSM (1993).

    Time-Resolved Polarized Absorption of C-Phycocyanin from the

    Cyanobacterium Westiellopsis prolifica. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol


Burnap RL, Troyan T, Sherman LA (1993). The Highly Abundant

    Chlorophyll-Protein Complex of Iron-Deficient Synechococcus Sp PCC7942

    (CP43) Is Encoded by the isiA Gene. Plant Physiol 103:893-902.

Chamovitz D, Sandmann G, Hirschberg J (1993). Molecular and Biochemical

    Characterization of Herbicide-Resistant Mutants of Cyanobacteria Reveals

    That Phytoene Desaturation Is a Rate-Limiting Step in Carotenoid

    Biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 268:17348-17353.

Cunningham FX, Chamovitz D, Misawa N, Gantt E, Hirschberg J (1993). Cloning

    and Functional Expression in Escherichia coli of a Cyanobacterial Gene

    for Lycopene Cyclase, the Enzyme That Catalyzes the Biosynthesis of

    beta-Carotene. FEBS Lett 328:130-138.

Hinterstoisser B, Cichna M, Kuntner O, Peschek GA (1993). Cooperation of

    Plasma and Thylakoid Membranes for the Biosynthesis of Chlorophyll in

    Cyanobacteria - The Role of the Thylakoid Centers. J Plant Physiol


Linden H, Lucas MM, Defelipe MR, Sandmann G (1993). Immunogold Localization

    of Phytoene Desaturase in Higher Plant Chloroplasts.[Synechococcus].

    Physiol Plant 88:229-236.

Tyacke RJ, Harwood JL, John RA (1993). Properties of the Pyridoxaldimine

    Form of Glutamate Semialdehyde Aminotransferase

    (glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2, 1-aminomutase) and Analysis of Its Role as

    an Intermediate in the Formation of Aminolaevulinate.[Synechococcus].

    Biochem J 293:697-701.

            ****** ELECTRON TRANSPORT and BIOENERGETICS ******

Berger S, Ellersiek U, Kinzelt D, Steinmuller K (1993). Immunopurification

    of a Subcomplex of the NAD(P)H-Plastoquinone-Oxidoreductase from the

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp PCC6803. FEBS Lett 326:246-250.

    Correction 330:110.

Fillat MF, Flores E, Gomez-Moreno C (1993). Homology of the N-Terminal

    Domain of the petH Gene Product from Anabaena Sp PCC 7119 to the CpcD

    Phycobilisome Linker Polypeptide. Plant Mol Biol 22:725-729.

Sone N, Tano H, Ishizuka M (1993). The Genes in the Thermophilic

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus Encoding Cytochrome c Oxidase.

    Biochim Biophys Acta 1183:130-138.

Tollin G, Hurley JK, Hazzard JT, Meyer TE (1993). Use of Laser Flash

    Photolysis Time-Resolved Spectrophotometry to Investigate Interprotein

    and Intraprotein Electron Transfer Mechanisms.[Anabaena]. Biophys Chem


Bovy A, Dekruif J, Devrieze G, Borrias M, Weisbeek P (1993). Iron-Dependent

    Protection of the Synechococcus Ferredoxin-I Transcript Against

    Nucleolytic Degradation Requires Cis-Regulatory Sequences in the 5' Part

    of the Messenger RNA. Plant Mol Biol 22:1047-1065.

Gisselmann G, Klausmeier P, Schwenn JD (1993). The ferredoxin:sulphite

    reductase gene from Synechococcus PCC7942. Biochim Biophys Acta


Hurley JK, Cheng H, Xia B, Markley JL, Medina M, Gomez-Moreno C, Tollin G

    (1993). An Aromatic Amino Acid Is Required at Position-65 in Anabaena

    Ferredoxin for Rapid Electron Transfer to Ferredoxin:NADP+ Reductase. J

    Am Chem Soc 115:11698-11701.

Hurley JK, Salamon Z, Meyer TE, Fitch JC, Cusanovich MA, Markley JL, Cheng

    H, Xia B, Chae YK, Medina M, Gomez-Moreno C, Tollin G  (1993). Amino

    Acid Residues in Anabaena Ferredoxin Crucial to Interaction with

    Ferredoxin NADP+ Reductase - Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Laser Flash

    Photolysis. Biochemistry 32:9346-9354.

Jacobson BL, Chae YK, Markley JL, Rayment I, Holden HM (1993). Molecular

    Structure of the Oxidized, Recombinant, Heterocyst [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxin

    from Anabaena-7120 Determined to 1.7-Angstrom Resolution. Biochemistry


Lloyd E, Tomkinson NP, Salmon GA, Sykes AG (1993). Pulse Radiolysis and

    Related Studies on the Ru-Modified His-16 Derivative of Anabaena

    variabilis [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1202:113-120.

Pueyo JJ, Gomezmoreno C (1993). Interaction of Flavodoxin with

    Cyanobacterial Thylakoids. Photosynth Res 38:35-39.

Redinbo MR, Cascio D, Choukair MK, Rice D, Merchant S, Yeates TO (1993).

    The 1.5-angstrom Crystal Structure of Plastocyanin from the Green Alga

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemistry 32:10560-10567.

Schmitz S, Schrautemeier B, Bohme H (1993). Evidence from Directed

    Mutagenesis That Positively Charged Amino Acids Are Necessary for

    Interaction of Nitrogenase with the [2Fe-2S] Heterocyst Ferredoxin

    (FdxH) from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp., PCC7120. Mol Gen Genet


Yakunin AF, Gogotov IN (1993). Natural Electron Donors for the Nitrogenase

    Reaction in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Microbiology-Engl Tr


Yakunin AF, Hallenbeck PC, Troshina OY, Gogotov IN (1993). Purification and

    Properties of a Flavodoxin from the Heterocystous Cyanobacterium

    Anabaena sphaerica. Biochim Biophys Acta 1164:305-310.

Yakunin AF, Troshina OY, Gogotov IN (1993). Properties of Flavodoxin and

    Regulation of Its Synthesis in Anabaena sphaerica. Microbiology-Engl Tr


Fresneau C, Riviere ME, Arrio B (1993). Characterization of the Plasmalemma

    ATPase from the Cyanobacteria Synechococcus PCC 6311 and PCC 7942. Arch

    Biochem Biophys 306:254-260.

Krenn BE, Vanwalraven HS, Scholts MJC, Kraayenhof R (1993). Modulation of

    the Proton-Translocation Stoichiometry of H+-ATP Synthases in Two

    Phototrophic Prokaryotes by External pH.[Synechococcus]. Biochem J


Lill H, Burkovski A, Altendorf K, Junge W, Engelbrecht S (1993).

    Complementation of Escherichia coli-unc Mutant Strains by Chloroplast

    and Cyanobacterial F1-ATPase Subunits. Biochim Biophys Acta


Ohta Y, Yoshioka T, Mochimaru M, Hisabori T, Sakurai H (1993). Tentoxin

    Inhibits Both Photophosphorylation in Thylakoids and the ATPase Activity

    of Isolated Coupling Factor-F1 from the Cyanobacterium Anacystis

    nidulans. Plant Cell Physiol 34:523-529.

Margheri MC, Allotta G (1993). Homoacetic Fermentation in the

    Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain Cc from Cycas circinalis. FEMS

    Microbiol Lett 111:213-217.


Cobley JG, Zerweck E, Reyes R, Mody A, Seludounson JR, Jaeger H,

    Weerasuriya S, Navankasattusas S  (1993). Construction of Shuttle

    Plasmids Which Can Be Efficiently Mobilized from Escherichia coli into

    the Chromatically Adapting Cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon.

    Plasmid 30:90-105.

Dolganov N, Grossman AR (1993). Insertional Inactivation of Genes to

    Isolate Mutants of Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7942 - Isolation of

    Filamentous Strains. J Bacteriol 175:7644-7651.

Marraccini P, Bulteau S, Cassier-Chauvat C, Mermetbouvier P, Chauvat F

    (1993). A Conjugative Plasmid Vector for Promoter Analysis in Several

    Cyanobacteria of the Genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis. Plant Mol

    Biol 23:905-909.

Mermet-Bouvier P, Cassier-Chauvat C, Marraccini P, Chauvat F (1993).

    Transfer and Replication of RSF1010-Derived Plasmids in Several

    Cyanobacteria of the General Synechocystis and Synechococcus. Curr

    Microbiol 27:323-327.

Soltesrak E, Kushner DJ, Williams DD, Coleman JR (1993). Effect of Promoter

    Modification on Mosquitocidal cryIVB Gene Expression in Synechococcus Sp

    Strain PCC 7942. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:2404-2410.

Chen XG, Widger WR (1993). Physical Genome Map of the Unicellular

    Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Sp Strain PCC 7002. J Bacteriol


Elhai J (1993). Strong and Regulated Promoters in the Cyanobacterium

    Anabaena PCC 7120. FEMS Microbiol Lett 114:179-184.

Park HW, Sancar A, Deisenhofer J (1993). Crystallization and Preliminary

    Crystallographic Analysis of Escherichia coli DNA

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Sakamoto T, Shirai M, Asayama M, Aida T, Sato A, Tanaka K, Takahashi H,

    Nakano M (1993). Characteristics of DNA and Multiple rpoD Homologs of

    Microcystis (Synechocystis) Strains. Int J Syst Bact 43:844-847.

Tominaga H, Hayashida Y, Hosoya Y, Kurokawa M, Sawa Y, Ochiai H (1993).

    Characterization of a Small Cryptic Plasmid, pPF1, from Phormidium

    foveolarum and Vector Construction. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem


Tominaga H, Soejima K, Kawagishi S, Ashida H, Sawa Y, Ochiai H (1993).

    Structural Organization of a Cryptic Plasmid, pMA1, from Microcystis

    aeruginosa f. aeruginosa Kutzing. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem


Yang XY, Mcfadden BA (1993). A Small Plasmid, pCA2.4, from the

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp Strain PCC 6803 Encodes a Rep Protein

    and Replicates by a Rolling Circle Mechanism. J Bacteriol 175:3981-3991.

Filippovich II, Zabalueva KT, Zvereva MG, Shatilov VR (1993). Occurrence of

    ribosome-containing structures in Phormidium laminosum photosynthetic

    membranes. Photosynthetica 29:409-416.

Kumar PA, Kruse E, Andriesse X, Weisbeek P, Kloppstech K (1993).

    Integration of a Cyanobacterial Protein Involved in Nitrate Reduction

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    Eur J Biochem 214:533-537.

Zabalueva KT, Shatilov VR, Filippovich II (1993). Characterization of

    ribosome-containing rod-like structures isolated from Phormidium

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                     ****** APPLIED CYANOBACTERIOLOGY ******

Megharaj M, Pearson HW, Venkateswarlu K (1993). Toxicity of Carbofuran to

    Soil Isolates of Chlorella vulgaris, Nostoc linckia and N. muscorum.

    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39:644-648.

Prevot P, Perret E, Jupin H, Soyergobillard MO (1993). Fluorescence

    Induction Used to Measure Parathion Toxicity in the Marine

    Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans - A Possible Model for

    Biodetection.[Synechocystis]. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 25:360-371.

Marquez FJ, Sasaki K, Kakizono T, Nishio N, Nagai S (1993). Growth

    Characteristics of Spirulina platensis in Mixotrophic and Heterotrophic

    Conditions. J Ferment Bioeng 76(5):408-410.

Avery SV, Codd GA, Gadd GM (1993). Biosorption of Tributyltin and Other

    Organotin Compounds by Cyanobacteria and Microalgae. Appl Microbiol

    Biotechnol 39:812-817.

Garnham GW, Codd GA, Gadd GM (1993). Accumulation of Zirconium by

    Microalgae and Cyanobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39:666-672.

Gil JM, Serra JL (1993). Nitrate Removal by Immobilized Cells of Phormidium

    uncinatum in Batch Culture and a Continuous-Flow Photobioreactor. Appl

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Mahesh G, Kannaiyan S (1993). Effect of Immobilization of Cyanobacteria in

    Solid Matrix on Ammonia Excretion and Nitrogen Fixing Activity.

    Biotechnol Lett 15:975-978.

Manoharan C, Subramanian G (1993). Feasibility studies on using

    cyanobacteria in ossein effluent treatment. Indian J Environ Health


Manoharan C, Subramanian G (1992). Sewage-cyanobacterial interaction -- a

    case study. Indian J Environ Protection 12:251-258.

Manoharan C, Subramanian G (1993). Influence of effluents on fatty acid

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Porter AG, Davidson EW, Liu JW (1993). Mosquitocidal Toxins of Bacilli and

    Their Genetic Manipulation for Effective Biological Control of

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Reyes JC, Chavez S, Muropastor MI, Candau P, Florencio FJ (1993). Effect of

    Glucose Utilization on Nitrite Excretion by the Unicellular

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Subramanian G, Rajini VS, Uma L (1992). Studies on cyanobacterial

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Uma L, Subramanian G (1990). Effective use of cyanobacteria in effluent

    treatment.  National Symposium on Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Fixation.

    I.A.R.I, New Delhi. pp.438-444.




Send CONTRIBUTIONS to one of the addresses listed below.  To SUBSCRIBE,

send $10 U.S. (or equivalent in any currency) per year to Jeff Elhai, along

with your name, telephone, fax, and E-mail numbers (if any), and a brief

description of your research interests for inclusion in the next Directory

of Cyanobacteriologists.  If it is difficult for you to send hard currency,

send a note indicating your interest. There is no charge to receive the

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AUSTRALIA     Steve Delaney            Department of Biotechnology,

 /NEW ZEALAND                          University of New South Wales, P.O.

                                       Box 1, Kensington, New South Wales

                                       AUSTRALIA 2033

AUSTRIA       Georg Schmetterer        Institut fur Physikalische Chemie,

                                       Wahringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien

                                       (EMail) A8422dad@Awiuni11

CANADA        Neil Strauss             Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Toronto, Toronto, Ontario  M5S 1A1.

                                       (E-mail) StrausNA@gpu.utcs.UToronto.Ca

P.R.CHINA     Chao-Tsi Tseng           Centre of Marine Sciences, Department 

                                       of Biology, Nanjing University,


CZECHOSLOV.   Jiri Komarek             Institute of Botany, CAS Dept. of

                                       Hydrobotany, Dukelske 145, CS-37982


FRANCE        Nicole Tandeau de Marsac Physiologie Microbienne, Institut

                                       Pasteur, 29 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724

                                       Paris Cedex 15. 

                                       (EMail) NTMarsac@Pasteur.Fr

GERMANY       Wolfgang Lockau          Biochemie der Pflanzen, Fachbereich 

                                       Biologie, Humboldt-Universitaet,

                                       Invalidenstr. 42, 10 115 Berlin

INDIA         Joe Thomas               Biotechnology Division, SPIC Science

                                       Foundation, 110 Mount Road, Madras

                                       600 032

ISRAEL        Elisha Tel-Or            Dept. of Agricultural Botany, The

                                       Hebrew University, Rehovot 76100

                                       (Tel) 08-481262

ITALY         Mario Tredici            Centro di Studio dei Microorganismi

                                       Autotrof. (C.N.R.), P.le. delle

                                       Cascine 27 51044 Firenze

                                       (E-mail) D47000@Ifiidg.Fi.Cnr.It

NETHERLANDS   Luuc Mur                 Laboratorium voor Microbiologie,

                                       Universiteit voor Amsterdam, Nieuwe

                                       Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam

SCANDANAVIA   Olav Skulberg            Norwegian Institute for Water

                                       Research, 69 Korsvall, N-0808

                                       Oslo 8 NORWAY

U.K.          Tony Walsby              Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG

ANYWHERE ELSE Jeff Elhai               Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida

                                       International University, University

                                       Park Campus, Miami FL 33199 USA. 

                                       (Tel) 305-348-3584, (Fax) 305-348-1986

                                       (E-mail) Cyano@Servax.Bitnet

                                            or  Cyano@Servax.Fiu.Edu