Toxins and other Secondary Metabolites

Characterization and synthesis

Physiological effects

Characterization and synthesis

Allerheiligen S, Brueckner R (1997). Total synthesis of the Tolypothrix pentaether via a bis(gamma-butyrolactone) -> 1,3,7,9-tetraol route. Liebigs Annalen:1667-1676

Bagchi SN, Marwah JB (1996). Selection by means of acridine orange renders defect in algicide production and carrier-mediated release in a cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria laete virens. Cytobios 87:181-188

Bandaranayake WM, Bemis JE, Bourne DJ (1996). Ultraviolet absorbing pigments from the marine sponge Dysidea herbacea: Isolation and structure of a new mycosporine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology 115:281-286

Banker R, Carmeli S, Hadas O, Teltsch B, Porat R, Sukenik A (1997). Identification of cylindrospermopsin in Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Cyanophyceae) isolated from Lake Kinneret, Israel. J Phycol 33:613-616

Blunden G (1997). Biologically active compounds from marine organisms. Pesticide Science 51:483-486

Bolch CJS, Blackburn SI, Jones GJ, Orr PT, Grewe PM (1997). Plasmid content and distribution in the toxic cyanobacterial genus Microcystis Kutzing ex Lemmermann (Cyanobacteria: Chroococcales). Phycol 36:6-11

Bonnard I, Rolland M, Francisco C, Banaigs B (1997). Total structure and biological properties of laxaphycins A and B, cyclic lipopeptides from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Letters in Peptide Science 4:289-292

Bouaicha N, Hennion MC, Sandra P (1997). Determination of aquatic phytotoxins by capillary electrophoresis. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 191:313-327 (French)

Bouaicha N, Rivasseau C, Hennion MC, Sandra P (1996). Detection of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) in cell extracts by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Applications 685:53-57

Carmichael WW, Evans WR, Yin QQ, Bell P, Moczydlowski E (1997). Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3104-3110

Chow CWK, Panglish S, House J, Drikas M, Burch MD, Gimbel R (1997). A study of membrane filtration for the removal of cyanobacterial cells. Aqua 46:324-334

Dittmann E, Neilan BA, Erhard M, von Dohren H, Borner T (1997). Insertional mutagenesis of a peptide synthetase gene that is responsible for hepatotoxin production in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806. Mol Microbiol 26:779-787

Erhard M, Von Doehren H, Jungblut P (1997). Rapid typing and elucidation of new secondary metabolites of intact cyanobacteria using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Nature Biotechnol 15:906-909

Feuillade M, Jann Para G, Feuillade J (1996). Toxic compounds to Artemia from blooms and isolates of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens. Archiv Fuer Hydrobiologie 138:175-186

Fujii K, Sivonen K, Adachi K, Noguchi K, Sano H, Hirayama K, Suzuki M, Harada KI (1997). Comparative study of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial products: Novel peptides from toxic Nodularia spumigena AV1. Tetrahedron Lett 38:5525-5528

Fujii K, Sivonen K, Adachi K, Noguchi K, Shimizu Y, Sano H, Hirayama K, Suzuki M, Harada KI (1997). Comparative study of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial products: A novel glycoside, suomilide, from non-toxic Nodularia spumigena HKVV. Tetrahedron Lett 38:5529-5532

Gol'Din EB, Mendzhul MI (1996). Phagolysates of cyanobacteria: Biocidal properties and employment. Mikrobiol Zhurn 58:51-58 (Russian)

Gustafson KR, Sowder RC 2nd, Henderson LE, Cardellina JH 2nd, McMahon JB, Rajamani U, Pannell LK, Boyd MR (1997). Isolation, primary sequence determination, and disulfide bond structure of cyanovirin-N, an anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) protein from the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:223-228

Harada K, Oshikata M, Shimada T, Nagata A, Ishikawa N, Suzuki M, Kondo F, Shimizu M, Yamada S (1997). High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of microcystins derivatized with a highly fluorescent dienophile. Natural Toxins 5:201-207

Hawkins PR, Chandrasena NR, Jones GJ, Humpage AR, Falconer IR (1997). Isolation and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from an ornamental lake. Toxicon 35:341-346

Henriksen P, Carmichael WW, An J, Moestrup O (1997). Detection of an anatoxin-a(s)-like anticholinesterase in natural blooms and cultures of cyanobacteria/blue-green algae from Danish lakes and in the stomach contents of poisoned birds. Toxicon 35:901-913

Henriksen P, Moestrup O (1997). Seasonal variations in microcystin contents of Danish cyanobacteria. Natural Toxins 5:99-106

Heresztyn T, Nicholson BC (1997). Nodularin concentrations in Lakes Alexandrina and Albert, South Australia, during a bloom of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Nodularia spumigena and degradation of the toxin. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 12:273-282

He Zhenrong. He Jiawan. Yu Minjuanu. Qiao Mingye. Shen Zhi. Wu Liandi. Wu Suozhu W, Guo Yungeng. Kondo F, Harada KI (1997). Seven microcystins from Microcystis waterbloom in Lake Dalai, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) 9:113-119

Humble AV, Gadd GM, Codd GA (1997). Binding of copper and zinc to three cyanobacterial microcystins quantified by differential pulse polarography. Water Res 31:1679-1686

Ishida K, Matsuda H, Murakami M, Yamaguchi K (1996). The absolute stereochemistry of micropeptin 90. Tetrahedron Lett 37:9225-9226

Ishida K, Matsuda H, Murakami M, Yamaguchi K (1997). Kawaguchipeptin B, an antibacterial cyclic undecapeptide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. J Nat Prod 60:724-726

Ishida K, Matsuda H, Murakami M, Yamaguchi K (1997). Microginins 299-A and -B, leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-299). Tetrahedron 53:10281-10288

James KJ, Furey A, Sherlock IR, Stack MA, Twohig M, Caudwell FB, Skulberg OM (1998). Sensitive determination of anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and their degradation products by liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Journal of Chromatography A 798:147-157

James KJ, Sherlock IR, Stack MA (1997). Anatoxin-a in Irish freshwater and cyanobacteria, determined using a new fluorimetric liquid chromatographic method. Toxicon 35:963-971

John W, Raynor MJ, Rae B (1997). Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of algal toxins. HRC-Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 20:34-45

Jones GJ, Negri AP (1997). Persistence and degradation of cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) in freshwaters. Water Res 31:525-533

Kaya K, Sano T (1998). A photodetoxification mechanism of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR by ultraviolet irradiation. Chemical Research in Toxicology 11:159-163

Kim BH, Choi MK, Chung YT, Lee JB, Wui IS (1997). Blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz in natural medium. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 59:35-43

Konno H, Hiroya K, Ogasawara K (1997). A new tactic for diastereo- and enantiocontrolled synthesis of (-)-malyngolide via catalytic meso-asymmetrization. Tetrahedron Lett 38:6023-6026

Kuriyama N, Akaji K, Kiso Y (1997). Convergent synthesis of (-)-mirabazole B using a chloroimidazolidium coupling reagent, CIP. Tetrahedron 53:8323-8334

Lahti K, Rapala J, Fardig M, Niemela M, Sivonen K (1997). Persistence of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystine-LR in particulate material and dissolved in lake water. Water Res 31:1005-1012

Lam AKY, Prepas EE (1997). In situ evaluation of options for chemical treatment of hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:1736-1742

Lee AY, Smitka TA, Bonjouklian R, Clardy J (1994). Atomic structure of the trypsin-A90720A complex: a unified approach to structure and function. Chemistry & Biology 1:113-117

Lincoln RA, Strupinski K, Walker JM (1996). The use of Artemia nauplii (brine shrimp larvae) to detect toxic compounds from microalgal cultures. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 34:384-389

Matsuda H, Okino T, Murakami M, Yamaguchi K (1996). Aeruginosins 102-A and B, new thrombin inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Microcystis viridis (NIES-102). Tetrahedron 52:14501-14506

Meriluoto J (1997). Chromatography of microcystins. Analytica Chimica Acta 352:277-298

Minehan TG, Kishi Y (1997). Extension of the Eschenmoser sulfide contraction/iminoester cyclization method to the synthesis of tolyporphin chromophore. Tetrahedron Lett 38:6811-6814

Murakami M, Kodani S, Ishida K, Matsuda H, Yamaguchi K (1997). Micropeptin 103, a chymotrypsin inhibitor from the cyanobacterium Microcystis viridis (NIES-103). Tetrahedron Lett 38:3035-3038

Murakami M, Shin HJ, Matsuda H, Ishida K, Yamaguchi K (1997). A cyclic peptide, anabaenopeptin B, from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii. Phytochemistry (Oxford) 44:449-452

Murakami M, Sun Q, Ishida K, Matsuda H, Okino T, Yamaguchi K (1997). Microviridins, elastase inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Nostoc minutum (NIES-26). Phytochemistry (Oxford) 45:1197-1202

Nagle DG, Park PU, Paul VJ (1997). Pitiamide A, a new chlorinated lipid from a mixed marine cyanobacterial assemblage. Tetrahedron Lett 38:6969-6972

Namikoshi M, Rinehart KL (1996). Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 17:373-384

Namikoshi M, Yuan M, Sivonen K, Carmichael WW, Rinehart KL, Rouhiainen L, Sun F, Brittain S, Otsuki A (1998). Seven new microcystins possessing two L-glutamic acid units, isolated from Anabaena sp. strain 186. Chemical Research in Toxicology 11:143-149

Negri AP, Jones GJ, Blackburn SI, Oshima Y, Onodera H (1997). Effect of culture and bloom development and of sample storage on paralytic shellfish poisons in the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis. J Phycol 33:26-35

Neumann U, Forchert A, Flury T, Weckesser J (1997). Microginin FR1, a linear peptide from a water bloom of Microcystis species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 153:475-478

Noguchi H, Aoyama T, Shioiri T (1997). Determination of the absolute configuration and total synthesis of radiosumin, a trypsin inhibitor from a freshwater blue-green alga. Tetrahedron Lett 38:2883-2886

Onoda T, Shirai R, Koiso Y, Iwasaki S (1996). Synthetic study on curacin A: A novel antimitotic agent from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Tetrahedron 52:14543-14562

Onodera H, Satake M, Oshima Y, Yasumoto T, Carmichael WW (1997). New saxitoxin analogues from the freshwater filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. Natural Toxins 5:146-151

Onyewuenyi N, Hawkins P (1996). Separation of toxic peptides (microcystins) in capillary electrophoresis, with the aid of organic mobile phase modifiers. J Chromatogr 749:271-277

Orjala J, Gerwick WH (1996). Barbamide, a chlorinated metabolite with molluscicidal activity from the Caribbean cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. J Nat Prod 59:427-430

Orjala J, Gerwick WH (1997). Two quinoline alkaloids from the Caribbean cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Phytochemistry (Oxford) 45:1087-1090

Papendorf O, Konig GM, Wright AD, Chorus I, Oberemm A (1997). Mueggelone, a novel inhibitor of fish development from the fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. J Nat Prod 60:1298-1300

Papke U, Gross EM, Francke W (1997). Isolation, identification and determination of the absolute configuration of fischerellin B. A new algicide from the freshwater cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola (Thuret). Tetrahedron Lett 38:379-382

Park HD, Iwami C, Watanabe MF, Harada KI, Okino T, Hayashi H (1998). Temporal variabilities of the concentrations of intra- and extracellular microcystin and toxic Microcystis species in a hypertrophic Lake, Lake Suwa, Japan (1991-1994). Environ Toxicol Water Qual 13:61-72

Parker DL, Kumar HD, Rai LC, Singh JB (1997). Potassium salts inhibit growth of the cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. in pond water and defined media: Implications for control of microcystin-producing aquatic blooms. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2324-2329

Patterson GML, Bolis CM (1997). Fungal cell-wall polysaccharides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite (phytoalexin) in the cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J Phycol 33:54-60

Pennings SC, Pablo SR, Paul VJ (1997). Chemical defenses of the tropical, benthic marine cyanobacterium Hormothamnion enteromorphoides: Diverse consumers and synergisms. Limnol Oceanogr 42(5, Part 1):911-917

Pizzolon L (1996). Importance of cyanobacteria as potential factor of toxicity in continental waters. Interciencia 21:239-296 (Spanish)

Priepke H, Brueckner R (1997). A butyrolactone -> 1,3-diol strategy for the obtention of Tolypothrix polyethers. Total synthesis of the Tolypothrix pentaether from enantiomerically enriched S-glycidol. Liebigs Annalen:1645-1655

Priepke H, Weigand S, Brueckner R (1997). A butyrolactone -> 1,3-diol strategy for the obtention of Tolypothrix polyethers. Stereoselective synthesis of a key lactone precursor. Liebigs Annalen:1635-1644

Rapala J, Sivonen K, Lyra C, Niemela SI (1997). Variation of microcystins, cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in Anabaena spp. as a function of growth stimuli. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2206-2212

Reshef V, Mizrachi E, Maretzki T, Silberstein C, Loya S, Hizi A, Carmeli S (1997). New acylated sulfoglycolipids and digalactolipids and related known glycolipids from cyanobacteria with a potential to inhibit the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1. J Nat Prod 60:1251-1260

Rivasseau C, Martins S, Hennion MC (1998). Determination of some physicochemical parameters of microcystins (cyanobacterial toxins) and trace level analysis in environmental samples using liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 799:155-169

Rossi JV, Roberts MA, Yoo HD, Gerwick WH (1997). Pilot scale culture of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula for its pharmaceutically-useful natural metabolite curacin A. J Appl Phycol 9:195-204

Rudi K, Larsen F, Jakobsen KS (1998). Detection of toxin-producing cyanobacteria by use of paramagnetic beads for cell concentration and DNA purification. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:34-37

Sano T, Kaya K (1997). A 3-amino-10-chloro-2-hydroxydecanoic acid-containing tetrapeptide from Oscillatoria agardhii. Phytochemistry (Oxford) 44:1503-1505

Sano T, Kaya K (1998). Two new (E)-2-amino-2-butenoic acid (Dhb)-containing microcystins isolated from Oscillatoria agardhii. Tetrahedron 54:463-470

Sedmak B, Kosi G (1997). Microcystins in Slovene freshwaters (Central Europe) - First report. Natural Toxins 5:64-73

Shin HJ, Matsuda H, Murakami M, Yamaguchi K (1997). Circinamide, a novel papain inhibitor from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (NIES-41). Tetrahedron 53:5747-5754

Subbaraju GV, Golakoti T, Patterson GM, Moore RE (1997). Three new cryptophycins from Nostoc sp. GSV 224. J Nat Prod 60:302-305

Tamiaki H, Tomida T, Miyatake T (1997). Synthesis of methyl bacteriopheophorbide-d with 8-propyl group. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 7:1415-1418

Tsuchiya Y, Watanabe M (1997). Disk type solid-phase extraction of microcystin in environmental water. Japanese Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health 43:190-196 (Japanese)

Tsuji K, Watanuki T, Kondo F, Watanabe MF, Nakazawa H, Suzuki M, Uchida H, Harada KI (1997). Stability of microcystins from cyanobacteria: IV. Effect of chlorination on decomposition. Toxicon 35:1033-1041

Twist H, Codd GA (1997). Degradation of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, nodularin, under light and dark conditions. FEMS Microbiol Lett 151:83-88

Ueno Y, Nagata S, Tsutsumi T, Hasegawa A, Yoshida F, Suttajit M, Mebs D, Puetsch M, Vasconcelos V (1996). Survey of microcystins in environmental water by a highly sensitive immunoassay based on monoclonal antibody. Natural Toxins 4:271-276

Vasconcelos VM, Sivonen K, Evans WR, Carmichael WW, Namikoshi M (1996). Hepatotoxic microcystin diversity in cyanobacterial blooms collected in Portuguese freshwaters. Water Res 30:2377-2384

Vezie C, Brient L, Sivonen K, Bertru G, Lefeuvre JC, Salkinoja Salonen M (1997). Occurrence of microcystin-containing cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters of Brittany (France). Archiv Fuer Hydrobiologie 139:401-413

Vuori E, Pelander A, Himberg K, Waris M, Niinivaara K (1997). Removal of nodularin from brackish water with reverse osmosis or vacuum distillation. Water Res 31:2922-2924

Wallace RW (1997). Drugs from the sea: Harvesting the results of aeons of chemical evolution. Molecular Medicine Today 3:291-295

Ward CJ, Beattie KA, Lee EYC, Codd GA (1997). Colorimetric protein phosphatase inhibition assay of laboratory strains and natural blooms of cyanobacteria: Comparisons with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for microcystins. FEMS Microbiol Lett 153:465-473

Warhurst AM, Raggett SL, McConnachie GL, Pollard SJ, Chipofya V, Codd GA (1997). Adsorption of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR by a low-cost activated carbon from the seed husks of the pan-tropical tree, Moringa oleifera. Sci Total Environ 207:207-211

Weigand S, Brueckner R (1997). Total synthesis of Tolypothrix pentaether from enantiomerically pure homoallyl alcohols by a butyrolactone -> 1,3-diol strategy. Liebigs Annalen:1657-1666

Willen T, Mattsson R (1997). Water-blooming and toxin-producing cyanobacteria in Swedish fresh and brackish waters, 1918-1995. Hydrobiol 353:181-192

Wu M, Milligan KE, Gerwick WH (1997). Three new malyngamides from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Tetrahedron 53:15983-15990

Xu Lihong. Zhou Bingsheng. Zhang Yongyuan. Xu Ying. Harada KI (1997). The preliminary study of environmental behaviour of microcystins. Acta Hydrobiol Sinica 21:85-89 (Chinese)

Yin Q, Carmichael WW, Evans WR (1997). Factors influencing growth and toxin production by cultures of the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei Farlow ex Gomont. J Appl Phycol 9:55-63

Yunes JS, Salomon PS, Matthiensen A, Beattie KA, Raggett SL, Codd GA (1996). Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil. J Aquat Ecosyst Health 5:223-229

Physiological effects

Ahluwalia KB, Maheshwari N, Deka RC (1997). Rhinosporidiosis: a study that resolves etiologic controversies. American Journal of Rhinology 11:479-483

Ayehunie S, Belay A, Baba TW, Ruprecht RM (1998). Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology 18:7-12

Bapat VA, Iyer RK, Rao PS (1996). Effect of cyanobacterial extract on somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album). Journal of Medicinal & Aromatic Plant Sciences 18:10-14

Bhattacharya R, Sugendran K, Dangi RS, Rao PVL (1997). Toxicity evaluation of freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806: II Nephrotoxicity in rats. Biomed Environ Sci 10:93-101

Birkun AAJ, Gol'Din EB (1997). Microphytic algae in cetacean pathology. Mikrobiol Zhurn 59:96-105 (Russian)

Bourne DG, Jones GJ, Blakeley RL, Jones A, Negri AP, Riddles P (1996). Enzymatic pathway for the bacterial degradation of the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin LR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:4086-4094

Boyd MR, Gustafson KR, McMahon JB, Shoemaker RH, O'Keefe BR, Mori T, Gulakowski RJ, Wu L, Rivera MI, Laurencot CM, Currens MJ, Cardellina JH 2nd, Buckheit RW Jr, Nara PL, Pannell LK, Sowder RC 2nd, Henderson LE (1997). Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope glycoprotein gp120: potential applications to microbicide development. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1521-1530

Bury NR, Codd GA, Wendelaar Bonga SE, Flik G (1998). Fatty acids from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with potent inhibitory effects on fish gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. J Exp Biol 201:81-89

Bury NR, McGeer JC, Eddy FB, Codd GA (1997). Liver damage in brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), following administration of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR via the dorsal aorta. J Fish Dis 20:209-215

Carbis CR, Rawlin GT, Grant P, Mitchell GF, Anderson JW, McCauley I (1997). A study of feral carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to Microcystis aeruginosa at Lake Mokoan, Australia, and possible implications for fish health. J Fish Dis 20:81-91

Codd GA, Ward CJ, Bell SG (1997). Cyanobacterial toxins: occurrence, modes of action, health effects and exposure routes. [Review] [35 refs]. Archives of Toxicology Supplement 19:399-410

Endo Y, Takehana S, Ohno M, Driedger PE, Stabel S, Mizutani MY, Tomioka N, Itai A, Shudo K (1998). Clarification of the binding mode of teleocidin and benzolactams to the Cys2 domain of protein kinase Cdelta by synthesis of hydrophobically modified, teleocidin-mimicking benzolactams and computational docking simulation. J Med Chem 41:1476-1496

Frazier K, Colvin B, Styer E, Hullinger G, Garcia R (1998). Microcystin toxicosis in cattle due to overgrowth of blue-green algae. Veterinary & Human Toxicology 40:23-24

Gilbert JJ (1996). Effect of food availability on the response of planktonic rotifers to a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1565-1572

Gromov BV, Mamkaeva KA, Filatova EV (1997). Effect of toxigenic strains of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on the larvae of frog Rana temporaria. Doklady Akademii Nauk 356:422-423 ([Russian])

Hayakawa Y, Hayashi T, Hayashi K, Ozawa T, Niiya K, Sakuragawa N (1997). Calcium spirulan as an inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator in human fetal lung fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 1355:241-247

Hietala J (1996). Life history responses of Daphnia to toxic cyanobacteria. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Series a II Biologica-Geographica-Geologica 91:1-22

Hietala J, Lauren Maatta C, Walls M (1997). Sensitivity of Daphnia to toxic cyanobacteria: Effects of genotype and temperature. Freshwater Biol 37:299-306

Hirata K, Takashina J, Nakagami H, Ueyama S, Murakami K, Kanamori T, Miyamoto K (1996). Growth inhibition of various organisms by a violet pigment, nostocine A, produced by Nostoc spongiaeforme. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1905-1906

Ikawa M, Haney JF, Sasner JJ (1996). Inhibition of Chlorella growth by the lipids of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Hydrobiol 331:167-170

Jochimsen EM, Carmichael WW, An JS, Cardo DM, Cookson ST, Holmes CE, Antunes MB, de Melo Filho DA, Lyra TM, Barreto VS, Azevedo SM, Jarvis WR (1998). Liver failure and death after exposure to microcystins at a hemodialysis center in Brazil. New Engl J Med 338:873-878

Kondo F, Matsumoto H, Yamada S, Ishikawa N, Ito E, Nagata S, Ueno Y, Suzuki M, Harada KI (1996). Detection and identification of metabolites of microcystins formed in vivo in mouse and rat livers. Chemical Research in Toxicology 9:1355-1359

Kotak BG, Zurawell RW, Prepas EE, Holmes CFB (1996). Microcystin-LR concentration in aquatic food web compartments from lakes of varying trophic status. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:1974-1985

Lauren-Maatta C (1996). Daphnia pulex and exposure to toxic cyanobacteria: Population and food chain experiments. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Series a II Biologica-Geographica-Geologica 90

Lauren Maatta C, Hietala J, Walls M (1997). Responses of Daphnia pulex populations to toxic cyanobacteria. Freshwater Biol 37:635-647

Lilleheil G, Andersen RA, Skulberg OM, Alexander J (1997). Effects of a homoanatoxin-A-containing extract from Oscillatoria formosa (Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria) on neuromuscular transmission. Toxicon 35:1275-1289

Luduena RF, Prasad V, Roach MC, Banerjee M, Yoo HD, Gerwick WH (1997). Interaction of the cyanobacterial thiazoline-containing lipid curacin A with bovine brain tubulin. Drug Development Research 40:223-229

Manna GK, Roy C (1995). Mutagenic and embryotoxic potency of cyanobacterium, Anabaena 7120 on mice and followed to F-1 generation. Cell & Chromosome Research 18:67-78

Mez K, Beattie KA, Codd GA, Hauser KHB, Naegeli H, Preisig HR (1997). Identification of a microcystin in benthic cyanobacteria linked to cattle deaths on alpine pastures in Switzerland. Eur J Phycol 32:111-117

Mori T, Gustafson KR, Pannell LK, Shoemaker RH, Wu L, McMahon JB, Boyd MR (1998). Recombinant production of cyanovirin-N, a potent human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein derived from a cultured cyanobacterium. Protein Expression & Purification 12:151-158

Mundt S, Nowotny A, Mentel R, Lesnau A, Lindequist U (1997). Antiviral activity of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa SPH 01. Pharmaceutical & Pharmacological Letters 7:161-163

Naegeli H, Sahin A, Braun U, Hauser B, Mez K, Hanselmann K, Preisig HR, Bivetti A, Eitel J (1997). Sudden deaths of cattle on Alpine pastures in South-Eastern Switzerland. Schweizer Archiv Fuer Tierheilkunde 139:201-209 (German)

Nishikawa A, Shirai R, Koiso Y, Hashimoto Y, Iwasaki S (1997). Design and synthesis of curacin A analogs with varied side chain structures. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 7:2657-2660

Onodera H, Oshima Y, Henriksen P, Yasumoto T (1997). Confirmation of anatoxin-a(s), in the cyanobacterium Anabaena lemmermannii, as the cause of bird kills in Danish lakes. Toxicon 35:1645-1648

Pennings SC, Weiss AM, Paul JJ (1996). Secondary metabolites of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus lyngbyaceus and the sea hare Stylocheilus longicauda: Palatability and toxicity. Marine Biology (Berlin) 126:735-743

Pilotto LS, Douglas RM, Burch MD, Cameron S, Beers M, Rouch GJ, Robinson P, Kirk M, Cowie CT, Hardiman S, Moore C, Attewell RG (1997). Health effects of exposure to cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) during recreational water-related activities. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health 21:562-566

Plinski M, Codd GA (1997). Cyanobacteria - a factor of animal intoxication: A review. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 53:8-10 (Polish)

Prepas EE, Kotak BG, Campbell LM, Evans JC, Hrudey SE, Holmes CFB (1997). Accumulation and elimination of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins by the freshwater clam Anodonta grandis simpsoniana. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:41-46

Rao PVL, Bhattacharya R (1996). The cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR induced DNA damage in mouse liver in vivo. Toxicol 114:29-36

Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, Gonzalez R, Ledon N, Garcia I (1998). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflammation Research 47:36-41

Shurin JB, Dodson SI (1997). Sublethal toxic effects of cyanobacteria and nonylphenol on environmental sex determination and development in Daphnia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:1269-1276

Sirenko LA, Kirpenko YA, Kirpenko NI (1997). Biologically active metabolites of blue-green algae and their role in the epidemiology. Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 33:51-62 (Russian)

Stotts RR, Twardock AR, Haschek WM, Choi BW, Rinehart KL, Beasley VR (1997). Distribution of tritiated dihydromicrocystin in swine. Toxicon 35:937-953

Stragier A (1997). More deaths reported from algae in Brazil; high aluminum concentrate kills patients in The Netherlands. Nephrology News & Issues 11:20,33

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