PDF of CyanoNews Volume 10 Number 2


                    Volume 10 Number 2        July 1994


CYANONEWS - a newsletter intended to provide cyanobacteriologists with a forum

      for rapid informal communication, unavailable through journals.

      Everything you read in this newsletter is contributed by readers like

      yourself. Published occasionally, about three times per year.

SUBSCRIPTIONS - $10 or equivalent/year. (See address label for expiration

      date). No charge for electronic version.

CONTRIBUTIONS - Expected every couple of years: a new result, an upcoming

      meeting or a summary of a past meeting, a post-doctoral opening, a new

      publication, a request for strains, a change of life... something. See

      last page for addresses you can send news to.


      item for a contact person.  Also, a Directory of Cyanobacteriologists

      is distributed every two years or on request. 


COPYRIGHT - This newsletter is not copyrighted and no rights are reserved. You

      are encouraged to reproduce or to transmit any part of this publication

      by whatever means at your disposal, no permission required.





  * New Directory of Cyanobacteriologists available

  * Toxin newsgroup reincarnated

  * Asian molecular miology workshop advanced

  * Meetings

  * Monographs

  * Positions available


  * Comings and goings of ourselves

  * Passing of Akira Mitsui


  * Mind of toxic Microcystis revealed

  * N2-fixation by Trichodesmium regulated by light

  * Nostoc immobilization boosts H2-evolution






                       ****** Matters Arising ******

      A new edition of the DIRECTORY OF CYANOBACTERIOLOGISTS is now available.

The Directory lists more than 450 names, addresses, and research interests of

cyanobacteriologists. While not an exhaustive list, the Directory may be

useful in finding addresses for reprint requests or communicating with

colleagues. A geographical cross-reference is given at the end of the


      The Directory is currently available only in electronic form. Those who

access the newsletter electronically should have received separate

instructions describing how to obtain the Directory. Printed copies will be

distributed at the Photosynthetic Prokaryote meeting, Sept 1994, or by mail

to those not attending the meeting. To assure yourself of a copy,...

      CONTACT: Jeff Elhai, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida

      International University, Miami FL 33199, U.S.A. (Tel) 305-348-3584,

      (Fax) 305-348-1986, (E-Mail) Cyano@Servax.Fiu.Edu

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      A NEWSGROUP devoted to the discussion of all aspects of SECONDARY

METABOLITE PRODUCTS from cyanobacteria is on-line.  This free computer

service bounces E-mail messages submitted by a correspondent automatically

to all subscribers, facilitating a global discussion of matters of

interest. To mark the new incarnation of this newsgroup, the name has been

changed from Cyan-Tox to CYANO-TOX -- old subscribers take note!

Subscribers to the old newsgroup will need to resubscribe.

      To subscribe to the newsgroup, send an E-mail message to

Mailserv@Desire.Wright.Edu (don't fill in the subject heading), and give

the following command as the text of the message: SUBSCRIBE CYANO-TOX. You

will receive a welcome message describing how to make use of the newsgroup.

If you fail to receive such a message within a few days, contact Tony

Arment so that a real human being (Tony) can get your name by the bugs that

may afflict the new system.

      CONTACT: Tony Arment, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Wright State

      University, Dayton OH 45435, U.S.A. (Tel) 513-873-3173,  (Fax) 513-

      873-3301, (E-Mail) AArment@Desire.Wright.Edu 

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Europe and North America both have their CYANOBACTERIAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

WORKSHOPS, serving as a means of bringing together graduate students and post-

docs as well as more senior workers in a cozy, informal setting. "WHY NOT

ASIA?" asks S. Shanmugasundaram. Few cyanobacteriologists in eastern Asia are

able to attend the major meetings of interest, even though their need for

communication and cooperative efforts is even more acute than that of their

North American and European colleagues. He suggests that Asian

cyanobacteriologists with a molecular bent would profit by a local meeting

that provides an opportunity for junior as well as senior scientists to

present their work, a forum in which to discuss the problems of practicing

molecular biology in developing countries, and the possibility of finding

creative, cooperative solutions to those problems. If you are interested in

seeing such a meeting come about then...

      CONTACT: S. Shanmugasundaram, Department of Microbiology, School of

      Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021,

      INDIA, (Tel) 91-452-85691 or 91-452-85642, (Fax) 91-452-85205,

      (E-Mail) bga%bic_mku@Imtech.ernet.in

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      G. SUBRAMANIAN has brought to our attention a laboratory manual entitled

"Manual of Techniques in Cyanobacterial Research", edited by himself and

others. Although the manual was designed for training workshops, it may also

be useful as a compendium of techniques for the cyanobacteriological

laboratory. The manual includes descriptions of techniques for the

identification and isolation of marine cyanobacteria, ecological techniques,

and many protocols for physiological and biochemical measurements. Each

protocol is presented in a cookbook format, listing the principle of the

assay, the reagents required, and a step-by-step procedure. The manual may be

purchased for US $10 (or its equivalent) to cover the costs of production and


      CONTACT: Scientist-In-Charge, National Facility for Marine

      Cyanobacteria, Bharathidasan University, Palkalaiperur,

      Tiruchirapalli 620 024, INDIA. (Tel) 91-431-896-352, (Fax) 91-31-

      96245, (Telex) 0455-253 BARD.

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      A 240-page monograph entitled "ALGAL TOXINS IN SEAFOOD AND DRINKING

WATER", edited by Ian Falconer, has recently been published by Academic

Press, Harcourt Brace & Company, Marrickville, Australia. Thevolume

provides information on the identification of toxic marine and fresh-water

algae, the routine analysis and effects of algal toxins, their veterinary

and public health impact, and control measures currently in use. Much of

the book focuses on cyanobacteria and their toxins.

                          ****** Meetings ******

      The 1st European NITROGEN FIXATION CONFERENCE is scheduled for 28

August to 3 September, 1994 in Szeged, Hungary. 

      CONTACT: Laszlo Dallmann, Biological Research Center, Hungarian

      Academy of Sciences, Szeged, P.O. Box 521, H-6701, HUNGARY

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      The VII International Symposium on PHOTOTROPHIC PROKARYOTES is still on

for 10-15 September 1994 in Urbino, Italy.

      CONTACT: Organizing Secretariat of the VIII ISPP, S.Ventura,

      CNR-CSMA, p.le delle Cascine 27, I-50144 Firenze, ITALY. (Tel) +39-

      55-350542 or -352051, (Fax) +39-55-330431,

      (E-mail) Ventura@csma.fi.cnr.it

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      A unique conference, entitled Asian Regional Conference on ECOTECHNOLOGY

FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT will take place 19 through 26 Oct 1994, in

Beijing, P.R. China and, at the same time, throughout the world by computer

hookup. The conference will feature three days of field trips to sites that

demonstrate an integrated systems approach to sustainable development (for

those physically at the meeting). Papers will be available via E-mail. 

      CONTACT (Chinese Participants): Li Wenhua, President of Special

      Committee for Sustainable Development, Chinese Society of Science and

      Technology for Social Development, 19 Zhonguancun Road, Beijing

      100080, PR China. (E-mail) LiWH@Bepc2.ihep.ac.cn

  or  CONTACT (all others): Eng-Leong Foo (Director). UNESCO Microbial

      Resources Center, MTC-Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm,

      Sweden. (Tel) 08-728-7145, (Fax) 08-331547,

      (E-mail) Eng-Leong.Foo@mtc.ki.se

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      The International Symposium/Workshop on BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION

ASSOCIATED WITH RICE is scheduled for 28 November to 2 December, 1994, in

Dhaka, Bangladesh. Some of the topics of the meeting include: (1) Azolla-

Anabaena associations, (2) free-living cyanobacteria in rice fields, and

(3) microflora associated with rice roots. 

      CONTACT: Mustafizur Rahman, Coordinaror, International

      Symposium/Workshop on Biological Nitrogen Fixation Associated with

      Rice. Post Bax GPO-4151, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. (Tel) 500191,

      (Telex) 632345 IGR BJ, (Fax) 880-2-863476 or 880-2-863794.

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      The Third European Workshop on the MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CYANOBACTERIA

will be held in Sevilla, Spain, in 1995. The tentative dates are 12-14 May

(Friday through Sunday). The first circular may be expected some time during

July, 1994. 

      CONTACT: Enrique Flores, Instituto de Bioqu¡mica Vegetal y

      Fotos¡ntesis, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Apartado 1113, 41080

      Sevilla, SPAIN. (Tel) 34-5-455-70-86, (Fax) 34-5-462-0154,

      (E-Mail) Flores@Cica.Es

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      The 10th International Congress on NITROGEN FIXATION will be held 28 May

1995 to 3 June 1995 in St. Petersburg Russia.

      CONTACT: Igor Tikhonovich, Congress Organizer, Research Institute for

      Agricultural Microbiology, P.B. 364, General Post Office, 190000, St.

      Petersburg, RUSSIA. (Fax) 812-470-43-62, (E-Mail) Chief@Riam.Spb.Su

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July 1995 in Asilomar, California. 

      CONTACT: Don Bryant, S-231 Frear Bldg., Dept. of Biochemistry and

      Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University

      Park, PA 16802, U.S.A. (Tel) 814-865-1992, (Fax) 814-863-7024,

      (E-mail) Dab14@Psuvm.Bitnet or DAB14@Psuvm.Psu.Edu

  or  CONTACT: Neil Straus, Department of Botany, University of Toronto,

      Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S1A1. (Tel) 416-978-3532, (Fax) 416-978-

      5878, (E-Mail) Straus@Botany.UToronto.Ca

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Montpellier, France, 20-25 August 1995. The congress will cover all aspects

of photosynthesis, from photophysics to environmental aspects, in all

photosynthetic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants.

      CONTACT: Paul Mathis, DBCM-SBE, CEA Saclay, Batiment 532, 91191

      Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France. (Fax) 33-1 69 08 87 17.

                      ****** Positions Offered ******


CONTACT: Bridgette Barry, Department of Biochemistry,

      140 Gortner Lab., University of Minnesota, St. Paul

      55108, U.S.A. (Fax) 612-625-5780,

      (E-Mail) barry@molbio.cbs.umn.edu

RESEARCH: Difference infrared and EPR spectroscopies to study the mechanism

      of electron transfer in photosystem II [MacDonald et al (1993) Proc Natl

      Acad Sci USA 90:11024].

SUBMIT: CV and three letters of recommendation.


CONTACT: Terry Bricker, Dept. of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton

      Rouge, LA 70803 U.S.A. (E-Mail) btbric%lsuvm.Bitnet@Uga.Cc.Uga.Edu  

RESEARCH: Protein-protein interactions in Photosystem II [Frankel & Bricker

      (1992) Biochem 31:11059]

REQUIREMENTS: Working knowledge of PAGE and HPLC, and should be interested in

      learning techniques for protein modification and analysis.

SUPPORT: Initial salary of $20,000/year and may be extended through a second


SUBMIT: CV, three letters of recommendation.

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CONTACT: Toivo Kallas, Dept. of Biology and Microbiology, University of

      Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh WI 54901, U.S.A. (Tel) 414-424-7084,

      (E-Mail) Kallas@Vaxa.Cis.UWOsh.Edu, (Fax) 414-424-1101, 

RESEARCH: Overproduction, reconstitution with Fe-S centers and Rieske-depleted

      cytochrome b6f complex, and structure/function analysis of mutant forms

      of the Rieske Fe-S, electron transport protein. The project will involve

      strong interinstitutional collaborations and the candidate would also

      have the opportunity to gain teaching experience if he/she so desires.

REQUIREMENTS: Experience in molecular biology, protein chemistry, and/or EPR

      spectroscopy is desirable.

SUPPORT: Approximately $22,500 yearly (11 month appointment) for two years.

SUBMIT: CV, brief description of interests, and the names, addresses, phone,

      FAX, and E-Mail numbers of three references.

START: September 1, 1994 (or earlier). Please call for further information.

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POSITION OFFERED: Post-Doc or Technician

CONTACT: Shirley Raps, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, 695

      Park Ave., New York, NY 10021, U.S.A. (Tel) 212-772-5281,

      (E-Mail) Raps@GeneCtr.Hunter.Cuny.Edu

RESEARCH: Characterizing genetic basis of toxin production in Microcystis.

      Gene cloning and construction of shuttle vector. 

REQUIREMENTS: Knowledge of cyanobacteria and molecular biology.

SUPPORT: Two years with possibility of a third.

START: immediately

SUBMIT: CV, two letters of recommendation

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CONTACT: Constantin Rebeiz, Laboratory of Plant Pigment Biochemistry and

      Photobiology, 240 A, PABL, 1201 West Gregory Ave., University of

      Illinois, Urbana IL 61801, U.S.A. (Tel) 217-333-1968.

      (E-Mail) Tino@Vmd.Cso.Uiuc.Edu

RESEARCH (Position #1): The development of a reconstituted cell-free system

      capable of total chloroplast assembly. Beside monitoring the successful

      assembly of a functional chloroplast in vitro, the research will involve

      trapping and decoding messages produced by various constituents of the

      reconstituted cell as they coordinate their efforts in bringing about

      total chloroplast differentiation in vitro. 

REQUIREMENTS (Position #1): Some expertise in one or more of the following

      disciplines: (1) porphyrin biochemistry, (2) thylakoid protein

      isolation, purification and characterization, (3) subcellular organelle

      isolation, purification and characterization, (4) plant molecular

      biological techniques and (5) biofiber techniques.

RESEARCH (Position #2):  Cloning of gene encoding [4-vinyl]Chlorophyllide a

      reductase (4VCR) [Biochem (1992) 31:8460-8464], important in chlorophyll

      biosynthetic heterogeneity in plants. 

REQUIREMENTS (Position #2): Some expertise in one or more of following:

      (1) Porphyrin biochemistry, (2) Protein isolation, purification, and

      characterization, (3) Plant molecular biology techniques.

START: Beginning Oct. 1, 1994

SEND: CV plus three letters of recommendation

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POSITION: Post-doc

CONTACT: Daniel Vaulot. (Tel) 33-98 29 23 34, 

      (E-Mail) Vaulot@univ-Rennes1.Fr, (Fax) 33-98 29 23 24.

LOCATION: CNRS, Station Biologique, Roscoff, France (Britanny).

RESEARCH: Molecular structure and regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus

      of a recently discovered, marine procaryote (Prochlorococcus sp.). This

      organism, now grown routinely in culture, plays a key role in the

      photosynthetic production of the tropical oceans. Work will consists of

      sequencing key photosynthetic genes and studying their regulation in

      reponse to changes in light and nutrients. This work is also supported

      by a 200.000 FF grant from the Centre National de la Recherche

      Scientifique covering equipment and supplies. 

REQUIREMENTS: Doctorate degree with experience in Molecular

      Biology/Biochemistry applied to Photosynthetic organisms. Citizenship

      from European Community or Associated State except France.

SUBMIT: CV with list of refereed publications (before August 1, 1995)

START: Early 1995

SUPPORT: 13.800 FF/month (EEC Human and Mobility Fellowship)

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POSITION: Research biochemist or molecular biologist specializing in


CONTACT: National Research Center Demokritos, Administrative Directorate,

      Athens, Greece 15310. (Tel) 301-653-2649, (Fax) 301-651-2172

SUPPORT: Initial Level C appointments are for three years. After that staffer

      are eligible for promotion to the tenured Level B.

SUBMIT: Full application plus supporting documents due not later than August





ULRICH FISCHER and J. RETHMEIER have moved from Universit„t Oldenburg to

Universit„t Bremen.

      Universit„t Bremen, FB2, Marine Mikrobiologie, Postfach 33 04 40,

      28334 Bremen, GERMANY

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NANCY FEDERSPIEL has departed from academia, leaving her position at

University of Idaho in favor of one in Silicon Valley.

      Microcide Pharmaceuticals, 850 Maude Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043,

      U.S.A. (Tel) 415-428-1550, (Fax) 415-428-3550,

      (E-Mail) NFeder@Microcide.Com

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                         Akira Mitsui (1929-1994)

      Akira Mitsui died of cancer related complications on May 31, 1994 in

Miami Florida. He will be missed by his friends and colleagues, both here in

Miami and around the world.

      Mitsui was born in Shizuoka, Japan. He received his Ph.D. from Tokyo

University in 1958. Mitsui resided in Miami for 22 years and was a Professor

of Marine Biology and Fisheries at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and

Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami. He was also the Director of

both the International Research Center for Marine Bioscience and Technology,

and the International Research Center for Biological Hydrogen Production.

      Mitsui's research focused on the biochemistry, bioenergetics, and

biotechnology of marine photosynthetic organisms. He collected and maintained

an extensive collection of marine cyanobacteria and  photosynthetic bacteria.

The focus of his research included; hydrogen production for clean energy and

a clean environment, nitrogen fixation for fertilization and energy

conservation, aquaculture for a clean source of food and protein, food

additives and pharmaceuticals for a healthy society, and 
chemicals and biochemicals for the development of useful materials. Mitsui was

a prolific author of research papers and reviews, and he served often as an

invited speaker at international conferences.

      Mitsui spent his lifetime on research and the technological development

of a clean global environment and a healthy society. From his advisors at

Tokyo University, Hiroshi Tamiya, Atushi Watanabe, and Eijiro Yakushiji, he

learned his originality, his patience, and his joy of research. From these,

Akira developed his own missions and dreams, although he knew that his goals

were not those of a single generation. His hope was that the younger

generation could continue his efforts with their own ideas and technology. 

      Akira Mitsui was kind and generous, and he greatly enjoyed entertaining

friends and colleagues from around the world, attested to by the hundreds of

photographs that line the hallways of his research center. He was an

outstanding scientist, father, and person, who was always patient and

thoughtful. Throughout his lifetime he was a great influence on many students

and colleagues. He will be fondly remembered by all who knew him.

                           -- Catherine Campbell




     Immobilization by Titanium Dioxide Increases Hydrogen Evolution: 

                     A Tribute to Alexander Krasnovsky

      While laboratory strains of cyanobacteriology are often prized for their

abilities to grow uniformly in culture, wild cyanobacteria frequently grow

adhered to surfaces or to themselves. Immobilization of cyanobacteria,

typically in artificial matrices, has been studied by several groups, hoping

to exploit the stability and other characteristics of the system for

biotechnological applications. OLGA BEKASOVA now tells us that the

polyurethane foams, calcium alginate beads, and other often used supports have

a simple alternative: the addition to the medium of 4g/l titanium dioxide

(TiO2), followed by intensive bubbling with air enriched in CO2.

      Bekasova's work in the laboratory of Alexander Krasnovsky (see below)

demonstrated that Nostoc muscorum immobilized in this fashion have swollen

mucilaginous capsules, resulting in the increase of the filament thickness

from 4 to 12 æm, an altered ratio of photosynthetic pigments, and achange in 

the efficiency of excitation energy migration. Specifically, energy migration

increased between phycobilins and decreased between phycobilisomes and


      Of particular note was the effect of immmobilization by TiO2 on hydrogen

evolution under anaerobic conditions. In media lacking an exogenous electron

donor, H2 was produced by immobilized cells only in darkness, in contrast to

H2-production by free-living cells, which required light. With an exogenous

electron donor, methyl viologen reduced by dithionite, the rate of H2 evolution

was three orders of magnitude higher in immobilized cells than in free-living

cells. Thus, immobilization of cyanobacteria by TiO2 influences both carbon and

hydrogen metabolism.

      A full account of this work has been published [Biokhim (1993)

58:1587-1593; Russ J of Plant Physiol (1993) 40:717-722 (Russ), 40:835-840

(Engl)]. Olga brought it to our attention in honor of Alexander Krasnovsky,

a pioneer in the field of photosynthesis, who died May 16, 1993. She has also

published a retrospective of work in Krasnovsky's laboratory concerning the

biochemistry and biophysics of phycobilisomes [Biofizika (1993) 38:1003-1024]

in an issue devoted to his memory.

      Olga Bekasova, Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of

      Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia.

      (E-Mail) Inbio@Glas.Apc.Org

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                     Why Does Microcystis Make Toxins?

      Cyanobacteria produce a variety of toxins, to the great torment of

livestock and occasionally humans as well. Amongst the most intensively

studied of the cyanobacterial toxins are the protein phosphatase inhibitors,

typified by microcystin-LR, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa. These

toxins wreak havoc within mammals, destroying their livers and accelerating

tumor formation. The ill effects of these toxins are largely attributable to

the inhibition of two of the major protein phosphatases in mammals, PP1 and

PP2A [Runnegar MT et al (1993) Am J Physiol 265:G224-G230], with the latter

binding more stably to the toxins [Toivola DM et al (1994) FEBS Lett

344:175-180]. The liver damage induced by microcystin-LR is due to marked

cytoskeletal alterations which [Eriksson JE et al (1990) Biochem Biophys Res

Comm 173:1347-1353], interestingly, indicates that a continuous fine-tuning

of phosphatases and kinases is required to maintain cytoskeletal integrity

[Eriksson JE et al (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:11093-11097]. A second

class of cyanobacterial toxins, typified by lyngbyatoxin A (also called

teleocidin), acts on the other side of the biochemical equation: increasing

protein phosphorylation by the activation of a specific protein kinase

[Kozikowski AP et al (1991) J Med Chem 34:2420-2430].

      The question remains: why should cyanobacteria be so interested in

making us sick? JEN YUN SHEEN has recently reported [Sheen J (1993) EMBO J

12:3487-3505] what may be an important part of the answer. She found that

okadaic acid, a compound with similar inhibitory action as microcystin-LR,

blocks the activity of protein phosphatases in maize and inhibits the

light-dependent expression of rbcSZm1 (encoding a subunit of rubisco) and

C4ppdkZm1 (encoding pyruvate phosphate dikinase). Okadaic acid also inhibits

the greening of etiolated leaves in response to light, explicable if active

protein phosphatase is required in general for the proper response of

light-regulated genes.

      Microcystin-LR, even more potently than okadaic acid, inhibits plant

protein phosphatases [MacKintosh C et al (1990) FEBS Lett 264:187-192],

suggesting the possibility that the class of cyanobacterial toxins it

represents interferes with the normal response of plants to light. Indeed,

toxin production by Microcystis rises with light intensity, well beyond the

overall increase in protein synthesis [Utkilen H & Gjolme N (1992) Appl

Environ Microbiol 58:1321-1325]. Although microcystins may affect zooplankton

[Carmichael WW (1994) Sci Am 270(1):78-86] and mosquitos [Kiviranta J (1992)

Acta Pharm Fenn 101:105-109], predators of cyanobacteria, it is tempting to

speculate that the toxins may serve cyanobacteria by subverting the ability

of their algal competitors to adapt to higher light intensities.

      And so we may be innocent bystanders, caught up in the crossfire between

algal belligerents, a fitting retribution for the devastation we ourselves

heap upon plants as a byproduct of OUR wars.

      Jen Yun Sheen, Department of Molecular Biology, Wellman 11,

      Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 USA.

      (E-Mail) Sheen@Frodo.Mgh.Harvard.Edu

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     Nitrogenase Expression in Trichomes of Trichodesmium (Revisited)

      In the last issue of CyanoNews (Vol. 10, No. 1), the possibility was

raised that Trichodesmium may be able to maintain nitrogen fixation against

saturating levels of O2 in seawater by limiting nitrogenase activity to a

specialized zone of cells central to the trichome. KAORI OHKI was moved to

describe results from her own laboratory that do not fit well with this view. 

      She and coworkers use a strain of Trichodesmium (Trichodesmium sp.

NIBB1067) isolated from Kuroshio Waters off Japan Island and kept in the lab

since 1983. They have found that colony formation is not necessary for N2

fixation by Trichodesmium. Indeed, the highest nitrogen-fixation activity is

observed in the exponential growth phase, when trichomes are separated from

one another [Ohki & Fujita (1988) Mar Biol 98:111-114]. Immunoelectron

microscopic images using antibodies raised against the Fe-protein of

nitrogenase show that almost all cells in the exponential growth phase

synthesize nitrogenase. The group also found that in Trichodesmium the three

genes (nifHDK) encoding nitrogenase are contiguous regardless of nitrogen

source [Zehr et al (1991) J Bacteriol 173:7059-7062], unlike the case of

heterocystous cyanobacteria, where nifD is interrupted in vegetative cells but

not in heterocysts. These results have convinced Ohki's group that

Trichodesmium does not develop cells specialized for N2-fixation.

      How then does Trichodesmium protect nitrogenase against poisoning by O2?

One clue may lie in the observation that Trichodesmium requires light to

maintain nitrogenase activity. Activity was completely lost when cells were

incubated in the dark for 3 to 5 hrs, and illumination for more than 1 hr was

needed for reactivation, a process requiring protein synthesis. During dark

incubation, the Fe-protein of nitrogenase increases its apparent molecular

mass on SDS-PAGE, while during reactivation in the light, the apparent

molecular mass decreases [Ohki & Fujita (1992) In: Progress in Photosynthesis,

p.103; Zehr et al. (1992) J Gen Microbiol 138:2679-2685].

      To explain the maintenance of nitrogenase activity in Trichodesmium,

Ohki and coworkers postulate that: (1) light is necessary not only for

supplying ATP and/or reducing power to N2-fixation but also for maintaining

nitrogenase in an active form, and (2) activation of nitrogenase that has been

inactivated by photosynthetically produced O2 may be achieved by a light-

dependent activating process.

      Kaori Ohki, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine Science and

      Technology, Tokai University, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424, JAPAN. (Fax) 81-






Benporath J, Zehr JP (1994). Detection and Characterization of Cyanobacterial

      nifH Genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:880-887.

Liaud MF, Valentin C, Martin W, Bouget FY, Kloareg B, Cerff R (1994). The

      evolutionary origin of red algae as deduced from the nuclear genes

      encoding cytosolic and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

      dehydrogenases from Chondrus crispus. J Mol Evol 38:319-327.

Truper HG (1994). Taxonomic Notes - Names for the Higher Taxa and Their Impact

      on the Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Int J Syst Bact 44:368-369.
Larkum AWD, Scaramuzzi C, Cox GC, Hiller RG, Turner AG (1994).

      Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll C-Like Pigment in Prochloron. Proc Natl

      Acad Sci USA 91:679-683.

Post AF, Bullerjahn GS (1994). The Photosynthetic Machinery in Prochlorophytes

      - Structural Properties and Ecological Significance. FEMS Microbiol Rev


                    ****** ECOLOGY and SYMBIOSIS ******

Epstein PR (1993). Algal Blooms in the Spread and Persistence of Cholera.

      Biosystems 31:209-221.

Garcia-Pichel F, Mechling M, Castenholz RW (1994). Diel Migrations of

      Microorganisms Within a Benthic, Hypersaline Mat Community. Appl Environ

      Microbiol 60:1500-1511.

Guerrero R, Urmeneta J, Rampone G (1993). Distribution of Types of Microbial

      Mats at the Ebro Delta, Spain. Biosystems 31:135-144.

Hovenden MJ, Jackson AE, Seppelt RD (1994). Field Photosynthetic Activity of

      Lichens in the Windmill Islands Oasis, Wilkes Land, Continental

      Antarctica. Physiol Plant 90:567-576.

Jorgensen BB (1994). Sulfate Reduction and Thiosulfate Transformations in a

      Cyanobacterial Mat During a Diel Oxygen Cycle. FEMS Microbiol Ecol


Paerl HW, Prufert-Bebout LE, Guo CZ (1994). Iron-Stimulated N2 Fixation and

      Growth in Natural and Cultured Populations of the Planktonic Marine

      Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1044-1047.

Ruffroberts AL, Kuenen JG, Ward DM (1994). Distribution of Cultivated and

      Uncultivated Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-Like Bacteria in Hot Spring

      Microbial Mats. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:697-704.

Sallal AKJ (1994). Lysis of Cyanobacteria with Flexibacter spp Isolated from

      Domestic Sewage. Microbios 77(310):57-67.

Schultzelam S, Beveridge TJ (1994). Physicochemical characteristics of the

      mineral-forming S-layer from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus strain

      GL24. Can J Microbiol 40:216-223.

Schultzelam S, Beveridge TJ (1994). Nucleation of Celestite and Strontianite

      on a Cyanobacterial S-Layer. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:447-453.

Vazquez FJ, Acea MJ, Carballas T (1993). Soil Microbial Populations After

      Wildfire. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 13:93-103.

Grobbelaar N (1993). The cycad-cyanobacterium symbiosis. In: Symbioses in

      Nitrogen-fixing Trees (Subba Rao NS, Rodriguez-Barrueco C, eds). Oxford.


Stock PA, Silvester WB (1994). Phloem transport of recently-fixed nitrogen in

      the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis. New Phytol 126:259-266.

van Coppenolle B, Watanabe I, Vanhove C, Second G, Huang N, McCouch SR (1993).

      Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny Analysis of Azolla Based on DNA

      Amplification by Arbitrary Primers. Genome 36:686-693.

                ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES ******

Bobzin SC, Moore RE (1993). Biosynthetic Origin of [7.7]paracyclophanes from

      Cyanobacteria. Tetrahedron 49:7615-7626.

Boland MP, Smillie MA, Chen DZX, Holmes CFB (1993). A Unified Bioscreen for

      the Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Microcystins in Marine

      and Freshwater Environments. Toxicon 31:1393-1405.

Chen DZX, Boland MP, Smillie MA, Klix H, Ptak C, Andersen RJ, Holmes CFB

      (1993). Identification of Protein Phosphatase Inhibitors of the

      Microcystin Class in the Marine Environment. Toxicon 31:1407-1414.

Craig M, McCready TL, Luu HA, Smillie MA, Dubord P, Holmes CFB (1993).

      Identification and Characterization of Hydrophobic Microcystins in

      Canadian Freshwater Cyanobacteria. Toxicon 31:1541-1549.

Davies SG, Ichihara O, Walters IAS (1994). Asymmetric synthesis of

      syn-alpha-alkyl-beta-amino acids. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1 :1141-1147.

Davies SG, Walters IAS (1994). Asymmetric synthesis of

      anti-alpha-alkyl-beta-amino acids. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1 :1129-1139.

Falconer IR, ed (1994). Algal Toxins in Seafood and Drinking Water. Academic

      Press, Harcourt Brace & Company, Marrickville, Australia.

Gallon JR, Kittakoop P, Brown EG (1994). Biosynthesis of Anatoxin-A by

      Anabaena flos aquae - Examination of Primary Enzymic Steps.

      Phytochemistry 35:1195-1203.

Gerwick WH, Proteau PJ, Nagle DG, Hamel E, Blokhin A, Slate DL (1994).

      Structure of Curacin-A, a Novel Antimitotic, Antiproliferative, and

      Brine Shrimp Toxic Natural Product from the Marine Cyanobacterium

      Lyngbya majuscula. J Org Chem 59:1243-1245.

Harada K, Ohtani I, Iwamoto K, Suzuki M, Watanabe MF, Watanabe M, Terao K

      (1994). Isolation of Cylindrospermopsin from a Cyanobacterium Umezakia

      natans and Its Screening Method. Toxicon 32:73-84.

Irie K, Kajiyama SI, Okuno S, Kondo M, Koshimizu K, Hayashi H, Arai M, Nishino

      H, Iwashima A (1994). New Teleocidin-Related Metabolites,

      (-)-7-Geranylindolactam-V and Blastmycetin F, from Streptoverticillium

      Blastmyceticum. J Nat Prod-Lloydia 57:363-368.

Kozikowski AP, Ma DW, Du L, Lewin NE, Blumberg PM (1994). Synthesis of the

      Benzofuran Analogue of Ilv, a New Protein Kinase C (PKC) Activator.

      Bioorg Medicinal Chem Letter 4:637-640.

Larsen LK, Moore RE, Patterson GML (1994). beta-Carbolines from the Blue-Green

      Alga Dichothrix baueriana. J Nat Prod-Lloydia 57:419-421.

Luukkainen R, Namikoshi M, Sivonen K, Rinehart KL, Niemela SI (1994).

      Isolation and Identification of 12 Microcystins from Four Strains and

      Two Bloom Samples of Microcystis spp - Structure of a New Hepatotoxin.

      Toxicon 32:133-139.

Murakami M, Okita Y, Matsuda H, Okino T, Yamaguchi K (1994). Aeruginosin

      298-A, a thrombin and trypsin inhibitor from the blue-green alga

      Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-298). Tetrahedron Lett 35:3129-3132.

Namikoshi M, Choi BW, Sakai R, Sun F, Rinehart KL, Carmichael WW, Evans WR,

      Cruz P, Munro MHG, Blunt JW (1994). New nodularins: A general method for

      structure assignment. J Org Chem 59:2349-2357.

Okino T, Murakami M, Haraguchi R, Munekata H, Matsuda H, Yamaguchi K (1993).

      Micropeptins a and B, Plasmin and Trypsin Inhibitors from the Blue-Green

      Alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron Lett 34:8131-8134.

Praud A, Valls R, Piovetti L, Banaigs B (1993). Malyngamide-G - Proposed

      Structure for a New Chlorine-Containing Amide from a Blue-Green Alga

      Epiphyte of Cystoseira crinita. Tetrahedron Lett 34:5437-5440.

Rao PVL, Bhattacharya R, Gupta SD (1994). Isolation, Culture, and Toxicity of

      the Cyanobacterium (Blue-Green Alga) Microcystis aeruginosa from a

      Freshwater Source in India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52:878-885.

Sone H, Nemoto T, Ishiwata H, Ojika M, Yamada K (1993). Isolation, Structure,

      and Synthesis of Dolastatin D, a Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptide from the

      Sea Hare Dolabella auricularia. Tetrahedron Lett 34:8449-8452.

    ****** TOXINS and NATURAL SUBSTANCES (Physiological Effects) ******

Barford D, Keller JC (1994). Co-Crystallization of the Catalytic Subunit of

      the Serine/Threonine Specific Protein Phosphatase-1 from Human in

      Complex with Microcystin LR. J Mol Biol 235:763-766.

Butcher AR, Lumb R, Coulter E, Nielsen DJ (1994).

      Coccidian/Cyanobacterium-Like Body Associated Diarrhea in an Australian

      Traveller Returning from Overseas. Pathology 26:59-61.

Endo Y, Ohno M, Hirano M, Takeda M, Itai A, Shudo K (1994). Chiral

      Requirements for Tumor Promoters - Conformations and Activity of

      Benzolactams. Bioorg Medicinal Chem Letter 4:491-494.

Frace AM, Hartzell HC (1993). Opposite Effects of Phosphatase Inhibitors on

      L-Type Calcium and Delayed Rectifier Currents in Frog Cardiac Myocytes.

      J Physiol-London 472305-326.

Fujiki H, Suganuma M . Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, a New Tumor Promoter,

      Engendered by Biochemical Studies of Okadaic Acid. J Biochem Tokyo


Gaete V, Canelo E, Lagos N, Zambrano F (1994). Inhibitory Effects of

      Microcystis aeruginosa Toxin on Ion Pumps of the Gill of Freshwater

      Fish. Toxicon 32:121-127.

Hale D, Aldeen W, Carroll K (1994). Diarrhea Associated with Cyanobacterialike

      Bodies in an Immunocompetent Host - An Unusual Epidemiological Source.

      JAMA 271:144-145.

Lin JR, Chu FS (1994). Kinetics of Distribution of Microcystin LR in Serum and

      Liver Cytosol of Mice - An Immunochemical Analysis. J Agr Food Chem


Lin JR, Chu FS (1994). In vitro neutralization of the inhibitory effect of

      microcystin-LR to protein phosphatase 2A by antibody against the toxin.

      Toxicon 32:605-613.

Macias-Silva M, Garcia-Sainz JA (1994). Inhibition of Hormone-Stimulated

      Inositol Phosphate Production and Disruption of Cytoskeletal Structure

      - Effects of Okadaic Acid, Microcystin, Chlorpromazine, W7 and Nystatin.

      Toxicon 32:105-112.

Mackay D, Kieckbusch R, Adamczewski J, Warren G (1993). Cyclin A-Mediated

      Inhibition of Intra-Golgi Transport Requires P34(Cdc2). FEBS Lett


Ohno M, Endo Y, Hirano M, Itai A, Shudo K (1993). Designed Molecules

      Reproducing the Two Conformations of Teleocidins. Tetrahedron Lett


Okuno S, Irie K, Suzuki Y, Koshimizu K, Nishino H, Iwashima A (1994).

      Synthesis and Biological Activities of Fluorine-Substituted

      (-)-Indolactam-V, the Core Structure of Tumor Promoter Teleocidins.

      Bioorg Medicinal Chem Letter 4:431-434.

Saito S, Nakano Y, Kushida K, Shirai M, Harada K, Nakano M (1994).

      Cross-reactivity and neutralizing ability of monoclonal antibodies

      against microcystins. Microbiol Immunol 38:389-392.

Sarrouilhe D, Beurg M, Lalegerie P, Baudry M (1994). Specificity of Rat Liver

      Plasma Membrane Serine Threonine Protein Kinases and Phosphatases over

      Endogenous Proteins. Cell Mol Biol 40:123-127.

Sjoholm A, Honkanen RE, Berggren PO (1993). Characterization of

      Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases in Rinm5F Insulinoma Cells. Biosci

      Rep 13:349-358.

Toivola DM, Eriksson JE, Brautigan DL (1994). Identification of protein

      phosphatase 2A as the primary target for microcystin-LR in rat liver

      homogenates. FEBS Lett 344:175-180.

Zhang ZJ, Zhao SM, Bai G, Lee EYC (1994). Characterization of deletion mutants

      of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1. J Biol Chem


                  ****** PHYSIOLOGY and METABOLISM ******

Beatson PJ, Marshall KC (1994). A proposed helical mechanism for gliding

      motility in three gliding bacteria (order Cytophagales). Can J Microbiol


Bolanos L, Mateo P, Bonilla I (1993). Calcium-Mediated Recovery of Boron

      Deficient Anabaena sp PCC 7119 Grown Under Nitrogen Fixing Conditions.

      J Plant Physiol 142:513-517.

Hirsch R, Deguia M, Falkner G, Gimmler H (1993). Flexible Coupling of

      Phosphate Uptake in Dunaliella acidophila at Extremely Low pH Values.

      J Exp Bot 44:1321-1330.

Kochhar S, Kochhar VK, Sane PV (1994). Characterization of a

      Meso-Diaminopimelate-Sensitive Aspartate Kinase from Cyanobacteria. FEMS

      Microbiol Lett 117:257-262.

Muro-Pastor MI, Florencio FJ (1994). NADP(+)-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from the

      Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp Strain PCC 7120 - Purification and

      Characterization of the Enzyme and Cloning, Sequencing, and Disruption

      of the ICD Gene. J Bacteriol 176:2718-2726.

Nagaya M, Aiba H, Mizuno T (1994). The SphR Product, a Two-Component System

      Response Regulator Protein, Regulates Phosphate Assimilation in

      Synechococcus sp Strain PCC 7942 by Binding to Two Sites Upstream from

      the phoA Promoter. J Bacteriol 176:2210-2215.

Onek LA, Lea PJ, Smith RJ (1994). Isolation and Characterization of a

      Calmodulin-Like Protein from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp PCC 6720. Arch

      Microbiol 161:352-358.

Sallal AKJ, Nimer NA, Eldurini NM (1994). Effect of gibberellic acid on

      photosynthetic electron transport reactions and nitrogenase activity in

      Anabaena cylindrica. Microbios 78(314):17-25.

Singh SP, Rai S, Rai AK, Tiwari SP, Singh SS, Samarketu, Abraham J (1994).

      Athermal physiological effects of microwaves on acyanobacterium Nostoc

      muscorum: Evidence for EM-memory bits in water. Med Biol Eng Comput


Walsby AE (1994). Gas Vesicles. Microbiol Rev 58:94-144.

Huang TC, Chen HM, Pen SY, Chen TH (1994). Biological Clock in the Prokaryote

      Synechococcus RF-1. Planta 193:131-136.

Kondo T, Ishiura M (1994). Circadian Rhythms of Cyanobacteria - Monitoring the

      Biological Clocks of Individual Colonies by Bioluminescence. J Bacteriol


Roenneberg T, Carpenter EJ (1993). Daily Rhythm of O2-Evolution in the

      Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii Under Natural and Constant

      Conditions. J Interdiscipl Cycle Res 24:232-233.

Schneegurt MA, Sherman DM, Nayar S, Sherman LA (1994). Oscillating Behavior

      of Carbohydrate Granule Formation and Dinitrogen Fixation in the

      Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp Strain ATCC 51142. J Bacteriol


Hansel A, Schmid A, Tadros MH, Jurgens UJ (1994). Isolation and

      Characterisation of Porin from the Outer Membrane of Synechococcus

      PCC 6301. Arch Microbiol 161:163-167.

Mori K, Qian ZH (1994). Synthesis of (3R, 25R)-3, 25-Dihydroxyhexacosyl

      alpha-D-Glucopyranoside, the Heterocyst Glycolipid of the Marine

      Cyanobacterium Nodularia harveyana. Liebigs Ann Chem :35-39.

Murakami N, Morimoto T, Imamura H, Nagatsu A, Sakakibara J (1994). Enzymatic

      Transformation of Glyceroglycolipids into sn-1 and sn-2

      Lysoglyceroglycolipids by Use of Rhizopus arrhizus Lipase. Tetrahedron


Sakamoto T, Wada H, Nishida I, Ohmori M, Murata N (1994). Identification of

      Conserved Domains in the þ12 Desaturases of Cyanobacteria. Plant Mol

      Biol 24:643-650.

                      ****** STRESS RESPONSES ******

Gabbay-Azaria R, Pick U, Benhayyim G, Telor E (1994). The Involvement of a

      Vanadate-Sensitive ATPase in Plasma Membranes of a Salt Tolerant

      Cyanobacterium. Physiol Plant 90:692-698.

Hagemann M, Fulda S, Schubert H (1994). DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis in the

      Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 Adapted to Different Salt

      Concentrations. Curr Microbiol 28:201-207.

Hill DR, Hladun SL, Scherer S, Potts M (1994). Water Stress Proteins of Nostoc

      commune (Cyanobacteria) Are Secreted with UV-A/B-Absorbing Pigments and

      Associate with 1,4-beta-D-Xylanxylanohydrolase Activity. J Biol Chem


Fiore MF, Trevors JT (1994). Cell Composition and Metal Tolerance in

      Cyanobacteria. Biometals 7:83-103.

Gombos Z, Wada H, Hideg E, Murata N (1994). The Unsaturation of Membrane

      Lipids Stabilizes Photosynthesis Against Heat Stress. Plant Physiol


Kovacs E, Torok Z, Horvath I, Vigh L (1994). Heat stress induces association

      of the GroEL-analog chaperonin with thylakoid membranes in

      cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plant Physiol Biochem


Lee LH, Lustigman B, Dandorf D (1994). Effect of manganese and zinc on the

      growth of Anacystis nidulans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53:158-165.

Rady AA, Elsheekh MM, Matkovics B (1994). Temperature Shift-Induced Changes

      in the Antioxidant Enzyme System of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis

      PCC 6803. Int J Biochem 26:433-435.

Raven JA, Johnston AM, Parsons R, Kubler J (1994). The Influence of Natural

      and Experimental High O2 Concentrations on O2-Evolving Phototrophs. Biol

      Rev Cambridge Phil Soc 69:61-94.

Samson G, Herbert SK, Fork DC, Laudenbach DE (1994). Acclimation of the

      photosynthetic apparatus to growth irradiance in a mutant strain of

      Synechococcus lacking iron superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiol


Sato N (1994). A cold-regulated cyanobacterial gene cluster encodes

      RNA-binding protein and ribosomal protein S21. Plant Mol Biol


Singh DP, Verma K (1994). Characterization of Temperature-Induced Changes in

      the Photosynthetic Properties of Anacystis nidulans Grown at Elevated

      Temperature - A Differential Response to Heat Shock. J Basic Microbiol


Singh JB, Prasad SM, Rai LC, Kumar HD (1993). Response of the Cyanobacterium

      Nostoc muscorum to Chromium and Lead - The Effect on Phosphorus

      Metabolism. J Gen Appl Microbiol Tokyo 39:559-570.

Singh S, Negi S, Bharati N, Singh HN (1994). Common Nitrogen Control of

      Caesium Uptake, Caesium Toxicity and Ammonium (Methylammonium) Uptake

      in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 117:243-247.

Singh Y, Kumar HD (1994). Adaptation of a Strain of Spirulina platensis to

      Grow in Cobalt- and Iodine-Enriched Media. J Appl Bacteriol 76:149-154.

Wada H, Gombos Z, Murata N (1994). Contribution of membrane lipids to the

      ability of the photosynthetic machinery to tolerate temperature stress.

      Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:4273-4277.

Wagner F, Gimona M, Ahorn H, Peschek GA, Falkner G (1994). Isolation and

      Functional Reconstitution of a Phosphate Binding Protein of the

      Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans Induced During Phosphate-Limited

      Growth. J Biol Chem 269:5509-5511.

                     ****** NITROGEN METABOLISM ******

Bhunia AK, Marik R, Banerjee SK (1994). Biochemical Effects of Carbaryl on

      Nitrogen Assimilating Enzymes of Cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum. Bull

      Environ Contam Toxicol 52:886-892.

Forchhammer K, Demarsac NT (1994). The P-II Protein in the Cyanobacterium

      Synechococcus sp Strain PCC 7942 Is Modified by Serine Phosphorylation

      and Signals the Cellular N-Status. J Bacteriol 176:84-91.

Fr¡as JE, M‚rida A, Herrero A, Mart¡n-Nieto J, Flores E (1993). General

      distribution of the nitrogen control gene ntcA in cyanobacteria. J

      Bacteriol 175:5710-5713.

Hirasawa M, Knaff DB (1993). The Role of Lysine and Arginine Residues at the

      Ferredoxin-Binding Site of Spinach Glutamate Synthase. Biochim Biophys

      Acta 1144:85-91.

Lanfaloni L, Cappanna E, Gualerzi CO (1994). Isolation and Characterization

      of a Chlorate-Resistant Mutant of Spirulina platensis. Microbiologica


Lin JT, Goldman BS, Stewart V (1994). The nasFEDCBA Operon for Nitrate and

      Nitrite Assimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5Al. J Bacteriol


Luque I, Flores E, Herrero A (1994). Nitrate and Nitrite Transport in the

      Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942 Are Mediated by the Same

      Permease. BBA-Bioenergetics 1184:296-298.

Reyes JC, Florencio FJ (1994). A New Type of Glutamine Synthetase in

      Cyanobacteria - The Protein Encoded by the glnN Gene Supports Nitrogen

      Assimilation in Synechocystis sp Strain PCC 6803. J Bacteriol


Singh S, Bisen PS (1994). Arginine metabolism in cyanobacterium Anabaena

      cycadeae: Regulation of arginine uptake and arginase by ammonia. Curr

      Microbiol 29:49-52.

Zhao GP, Somerville RL, Chitnis PR (1994). Synechocystis PCC 6803 Contains a

      Single Gene for the beta Subunit of Tryptophan Synthase with Strong

      Homology to the trpB Genes of Arabidopsis and Maize (Zea Mays L). Plant

      Physiol 104:461-466.

                 ****** NITROGENASE and HYDROGENASE ******

Bekasova OD, Krasnovskii AA (1993). Nitrogenase and Hydrogenase Activities in

      Preparations of Phycobilisomes Isolated from Cyanobacterium Nostoc

      muscorum. Biochemistry-Engl Tr 58:1165-1170.

Durner J, Bohm I, Hilz H, Boger P (1994). Posttranslational Modification of

      Nitrogenase - Differences Between the Purple Bacterium Rhodospirillum

      rubrum and the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Eur J Biochem


Misra HS, Tuli R (1994). Nitrogen Fixation by Plectonema boryanuma Photosystem

      II Independent Component. Microbiology-Uk 140:971-976.

Bekasova OD, Krasnovsky AA (1993). The molecular hydrogen production by cells

      of cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum immobilized by titanium dioxide. Russ

      J Plant Physiol 40:835-840 [Russ]; 40:717-722 [Engl].

Serebriakova L, Zorin NA, Lindblad P (1994). Reversible Hydrogenase in

      Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 - Presence and Localization in

      Non-N2-Fixing Cells. Arch Microbiol 161:140-144.

                       ****** DIFFERENTIATION ******

Black TA, Cai YP, Wolk CP (1993). Spatial Expression and Autoregulation of

      hetR, a Gene Involved in the Control of Heterocyst Development in

      Anabaena. Mol Microbiol 10:1153 (correction of 9:77).

Black TA, Wolk CP (1994). Analysis of a Het- Mutation in Anabaena sp Strain

      PCC 7120 Implicates a Secondary Metabolite in the Regulation of

      Heterocyst Spacing. J Bacteriol 176:2282-2292.

Blakefield MK, Harris DO (1994). Delay of Cell Differentiation in Anabaena

      Aequalis Caused by UV-B Radiation and the Role of Photoreactivation and

      Excision Repair. Photochem Photobiol 59:204-208.

Campbell D (1994). Interaction between the environment, intermediary

      metabolism and cellular differentiation in a filamentous cyanobacterium.

      Bull Inst Pasteur 92:27-43.

Carrasco CD, Ramaswamy KS, Ramasubramanian TS, Golden JW (1994). Anabaena xisF

      Gene Encodes a Developmentally Regulated Site-Specific Recombinase. Gene

      Develop 8:74-83.

Leganes F, Fernandezpinas F, Wolk CP (1994). Two mutations that block

      heterocyst differentiation have different effects on akinete

      differentiation in Nostoc ellipsosporum. Mol Microbiol 12:679-684.

Matveyev AV, Rutgers E, Soderback E, Bergman B (1994). A Novel Genome

      Rearrangement Involved in Heterocyst Differentiation of the

      Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp PCC 7120. FEMS Microbiol Lett 116:201-207.

Ramasubramanian TS, Wei TF, Golden JW (1994). Two Anabaena sp Strain PCC 7120

      DNA-Binding Factors Interact with Vegetative Cell- and

      Heterocyst-Specific Genes. J Bacteriol 176:1214-1223.

Singh S (1993). Role of Glutamine Synthetase Activity in the Arginine and

      Proline Regulation of Heterocyst and Nitrogenase Formation in the

      Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cycadeae. J Gen Appl Microbiol Tokyo 39:355-360.

Singh S, Hasija SK, Negi S, Singh HN (1994). Mutational Analysis of the

      NH4(+)-Nitrogen Controls That Regulate Ammonium Transport Activity,

      Heterocyst Differentiation, Nitrogenase Activity and the

      Heterocyst-Spacing Pattern in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

      Biochem Mol Biol Int 32:359-370.

Strohmeier U, Gerdes C, Lockau W (1994). Proteolysis in Heterocyst-Forming

      Cyanobacteria - Characterization of a Further Enzyme with Trypsin-Like

      Specificity, and of a Prolyl Endopeptidase from Anabaena variabilis. Z

      Naturforsch C 49:70-78.

                      ****** CARBON METABOLISM ******

Badger MR, Palmqvist K, Yu JW (1994). Measurement of CO2 and HCO3(-) Fluxes in

      Cyanobacteria and Microalgae During Steady-State Photosynthesis. Physiol

      Plant 90:529-536.

Cloney LP, Bekkaoui DR, Hemmingsen SM (1993). Co-Expression of Plastid

      Chaperonin Genes and a Synthetic Plant Rubisco Operon in Escherichia

      coli. Plant Mol Biol 23:1285-1290.

Crotty CM, Tyrrell PN, Espie GS (1994). Quenching of Chlorophyll a

      Fluorescence in Response to Na(+)-Dependent HCO3(-) Transport-Mediated

      Accumulation of Inorganic Carbon in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

      UTEX 625. Plant Physiol 104:785-791.

English RS, Lorbach SC, Qin X, Shively JM (1994). Isolation and

      characterization of a carboxysome shell gene from Thiobacillus

      neapolitanus. Mol Microbiol 12:647-654.

Espie GS, Kandasamy RA (1994). Monensin Inhibition of Na+-Dependent HCO3(-

      )Transport Distinguishes It from Na(+)-Independent HCO3(-) Transport and

      Provides Evidence for Na(+)/HCO3(-) Symport in the Cyanobacterium

      Synechococcus UTEX 625. Plant Physiol 104:1419-1428.

Fuchs B, Suttner P, Sterner S, Wastlhuber R, Loos E (1994). Disproportionating

      transglycosylase (D-enzyme) in green algae and cyanobacteria. Partial

      purification and characterization. Z Naturforsch C 49:163-170.

Marco E, Martinez I, Ronentarazi M, Orus MI, Kaplan A (1994). Inactivation of

      ccmO in Synechococcus sp Strain PCC 7942 Results in a Mutant Requiring

      High Levels of CO2. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1018-1020.

Ogawa T, Amichay D, Gurevitz M (1994). Isolation and Characterization of the

      ccmM Gene Required by the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 for

      Inorganic Carbon Utilization. Photosynth Res 39:183-190.

Ogawa T, Marco E, Orus MI (1994). A Gene (ccmA) Required for Carboxysome

      Formation in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp Strain PCC 6803. J

      Bacteriol 176:2374-2378.

Palmqvist K, Ogren E, Lernmark U (1994). The CO2-Concentrating Mechanism Is

      Absent in the Green Alga Coccomyxa - A Comparative Study of

      Photosynthetic CO2 and Light Responses of Coccomyxa, Chlamydomonas

      reinhardtii and Barley Protoplasts. Plant Cell Environ 17:65-72.

Palmqvist K, Yu JW, Badger MR (1994). Carbonic Anhydrase Activity and

      Inorganic Carbon Fluxes in Low-CI and High-CI Cells of Chlamydomonas

      reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus. Physiol Plant 90:537-547.

Raven JA, Newman JR (1994). Requirement for Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in

      Processes Other Than Photosynthetic Inorganic Carbon Assimilation. Plant

      Cell Environ 17:123-130.

Williams TG, Colman B (1994). Rapid Separation of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes

      Using Cellulose Acetate Membrane Electrophoresis. J Exp Bot 45:153-158.

Yu JW, Price GD, Badger MR (1994). Characterisation of CO2 and HCO3- Uptake

      During Steady-State Photosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

      PCC 7942. Aust J Plant Physiol 21:185-195.

Yu LW, Price GD, Badger MR (1994). A Mutant Isolated from the Cyanobacterium

      Synechococcus PCC 7942 Is Unable to Adapt to Low Inorganic Carbon

      Conditions. Plant Physiol 104:605-611.

                       ****** PHOTOSYNTHESIS ******

Arieli B, Shahak Y, Taglicht D, Hauska G, Padan E (1994). Purification and

      Characterization of Sulfide-Quinone Reductase, a Novel Enzyme Driving

      Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Oscillatoria Limnetica. J Biol Chem


Bader KP, Hoper S (1994). Stimulatory Effects of an Ammonium Salt Biocide on

      Photosynthetic Electron Transport Reactions. Z Naturforsch C 49:87-94.

Boekema EJ, Boonstra AF, Dekker JP, Rogner M (1994). Electron Microscopic

      Structural Analysis of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and the

      Cytochrome b6/f Complex from Green Plants and Cyanobacteria. J Bioenerg

      Biomembrane 26:17-29.

Huzisige H, Ke B (1993). Dynamics of the History of Photosynthesis Research.

      Photosynth Res 38:185-209.

Laible PD, Zipfel W, Owens TG (1994). Excited State Dynamics in

      Chlorophyll-Based Antennae - The Role of Transfer Equilibrium. Biophys

      J 66:844-860.

Muller C, Reuter W, Wehrmeyer W, Dau H, Senger H (1993). Adaptation of the

      Photosynthetic Apparatus of Anacystis nidulans to Irradiance and

      CO2-Concentration. Bot Acta 106:480-487.

Mullineaux CW (1993). Inhibition by Phosphate of Light-State Transitions in

      Cyanobacterial Cells. Photosynth Res 38:135-140.

Schmid GH, Bader KP, Schulder R (1994). A Study on the Life Time of the

      S-3-State in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria Chalybea. Z

      Naturforsch C 49:108-114.

Shen GZ, Vermaas WFJ (1994). Chlorophyll in a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

      mutant without photosystem I and photosystem II core complexes -

      Evidence for peripheral antenna chlorophylls in cyanobacteria. J Biol

      Chem 269:13904-13910.

Trinkunas G, Holzwarth AR (1994). Kinetic Modeling of Exciton Migration in

      Photosynthetic Systems. 2. Simulations of Excitation Dynamics in

      Two-Dimensional Photosystem Core Antenna/Reaction Center Complexes.

      Biophys J 66:415-429.

Vermaas WFJ, Shen GZ, Styring S (1994). Electrons Generated by Photosystem II

      Are Utilized by an Oxidase in the Absence of Photosystem I in the

      Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. FEBS Lett 337:103-108.

                        ****** PHOTOSYSTEM I ******

Chitnis VP, Chitnis PR (1993). PsaL Subunit is Required for the Formation of

      Photosystem I Trimers in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

      FEBS Lett 336:330-334.

Falzone CJ, Kao YH, Zhao JD, Bryant DA, Lecomte JTJ (1994). Three-dimensional

      solution structure of PsaE from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.

      strain PCC 7002, a photosystem I protein that shows structural homology

      with SH3 domains. Biochemistry 33:6052-6062.

Falzone CJ, Kao YH, Zhao JD, MacLaughlin KL, Bryant DA, Lecomte JTJ (1994).

      H-1 and N-15 NMR assignments of PsaE, a photosystem I subunit from the

      cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Biochemistry


Hastings G, Kleinherenbrink FAM, Lin S, Blankenship RE (1994). Time-Resolved

      Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy of Photosystem I. Biochemistry


Herman PL, Adiwilaga K, Golbeck JH, Weeks DP (1994). Sequence of a psaC Gene

      from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 6301. Plant Physiol


Luneberg J, Fromme P, Jekow P, Schlodder E (1994). Spectroscopic

      Characterization of PS I Core Complexes from Thermophilic Synechococcus

      sp - Identical Reoxidation Kinetics of A(1)(-) Before and After Removal

      of the Iron-Sulfur-Clusters FA and FB. FEBS Lett 338:197-202.

Mi H, Endo T, Schreiber U, Ogawa T, Asada K (1994). NAD(P)H

      Dehydrogenase-Dependent Cyclic Electron Flow Around Photosystem I in the

      Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 - A Study of Dark-Starved Cells

      and Spheroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol 35:163-173.

Nyhus KJ, Sonoike K, Pakrasi HB (1994). Nucleotide sequences of the psaA and

      the psaB genes encoding the reaction center proteins of Photosystem I

      in Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29423. BBA-Bioenergetics 1185:247-251.

Odom WR, Hodges R, Chitnis PR, Guikema JA (1993). Characterization of

      Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in Iron-Supplied and Iron-Deficient Media.

      Plant Mol Biol 23:1255-1264.

Tziatzios C, Schuck P, Schubert D, Tsiotis G (1994). The molar mass of an

      active photosystem I complex from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus

      PCC 7002. Z Naturforsch C 49:220-222.

Xu QA, Yu LA, Chitnis VP, Chitnis PR (1994). Function and Organization of

      Photosystem I in a Cyanobacterial Mutant Strain That Lacks PsaF and PsaJ

      Subunits. J Biol Chem 269:3205-3211.

                       ****** PHOTOSYSTEM II ******

Bader KP, Renger G, Schmid GH (1993). A Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the

      Water-Splitting Reaction. Photosynth Res 38:355-361.

Bisen PS, Shanthy S (1993). Characterization of a DCMU-Resistant Mutant of the

      Filamentous, Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum. J Plant

      Physiol 142:557-563.

Boerner RJ, Barry BA (1994). EPR Evidence That the M(+) Radical, Which Is

      Observed in 3 Site-Directed Mutants of Photosystem II, Is a Tyrosine

      Radical. J Biol Chem 269:134-137.

Bowlby NR, Espe M, Bhatnagar R, Wang J, Hoganson C, McIntosh L, Babcock G

      (1993). Analytical Procedures for the Quantification of Isotopic Amino

      Acid Incorporation into Photosynthetic Proteins of Synechocystis

      PCC 6803. Photosynth Res 38:379-386.

Chu HA, Nguyen AP, Debus RJ (1994). Site-directed photosystem II mutants with

      perturbed oxygen-evolving properties. 2. Increased binding or

      photooxidation of manganese in the absence of the extrinsic 33-kDa

      polypeptide in vivo. Biochemistry 33:6150-6157.

Chu HA, Nguyen AP, Debus RJ (1994). Site-directed photosystem II mutants with

      perturbed oxygen-evolving properties. 1. Instability or inefficient

      assembly of the manganese cluster in vivo. Biochemistry 33:6137-6149.

Etienne AL, Kirilovsky D (1993). The Primary Structure of D1 Near the QB

      Pocket Influences Oxygen Evolution. Photosynth Res 38:387-394.

Kanervo E, Maenpaa P, Aro EM (1993). D1 Protein Degradation and psbA

      Transcript Levels in Synechocystis PCC 6803 During Photoinhibition

      Invivo. J Plant Physiol 142:669-675.

Kirilovsky D, Rutherford AW, Etienne AL (1994). Influence of DCMU and

      Ferricyanide on Photodamage in Photosystem II. Biochemistry


Kruse O, Radunz A, Schmid GH (1994). Phosphatidylglycerol and beta-Carotene

      Bound Onto the D1-Core Peptide of Photosystem II in the Filamentous

      Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria chalybea. Z Naturforsch C 49:115-124.

Kulkarni RD, Golden SS (1994). Adaptation to High Light Intensity in

      Synechococcus sp Strain PCC 7942 - Regulation of Three psbA Genes and

      Two Forms of the D1 Protein. J Bacteriol 176:959-965.

Leonhardt K, Straus NA (1994). Photosystem II Genes isiA, psbDI and psbC in

      Anabaena sp PCC 7120 - Cloning, Sequencing and the Transcriptional

      Regulation in Iron-Stressed and Iron-Repleted Cells. Plant Mol Biol


MacDonald GM, Boerner RJ, Everly RM, Cramer WA, Debus RJ, Barry BA (1994).

      Comparison of Cytochrome b559 Content in Photosytem-II Complexes from

      Spinach and Synechocystis Species PCC 6803. Biochemistry 33:4393-4400.

Misra HS, Desai TS (1993). Involvement of Acceptor Side Components of PSII in

      the Regulatory Mechanism of Plectonema boryanum Grown

      Photoautotrophically Under Diazotrophic Condition. Biochem Biophys Res

      Commun 194:1001-1007.

Mullineaux CW, Holzwarth AR (1993). Effect of Photosystem II Reaction Centre

      Closure on Fluorescence Decay Kinetics in a Cyanobacterium. Biochim

      Biophys Acta 1183:345-351.

Perewoska I, Etienne AL, Miranda T, Kirilovsky D (1994). S-1 Destabilization

      and Higher Sensitivity to Light in Metribuzin-Resistant Mutants. Plant

      Physiol 104:235-245.

Picorel R, Williamson DL, Yruela I, Seibert M (1994). The State of Iron in the

      Oxygen-Evolving Core Complex of the Cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum

      - Mossbauer Spectroscopy. BBA-Bioenergetics 1184:171-177.

Ruff M, Pistorius EK (1993). Isolation and partial characterization of a

      manganese and chloride binding protein present in highly purified

      photoystem II complexes of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus

      sp.: The protein being detected by its L-arginine metabolizing activity.

      Z Naturforsch 49c:95-107.

Satoh K, Katoh S, Donner A, Oettmeier W (1994). Binding Affinities of Oxidized

      and Reduced Forms of Tetrahalogenated Benzoquinones to the QB Site in

      Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Particles from Synechococcus elongatus.

      Plant Cell Physiol 35:461-468.

Shen GZ, Boussiba S, Vermaas WFJ (1993). Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 Strains

      Lacking Photosystem I and Phycobilisome Function. Plant Cell


Smart LB, Bowlby NR, Anderson SL, Sithole I, McIntosh L (1994). Genetic

      Manipulation of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 -

      Development of Strains Lacking Photosystem I for the Analysis of

      Mutations in Photosystem II. Plant Physiol 104:349-354.

Stamatakis C, Papageorgiou GC (1993). Stabilization of Photosystem II

      Particles Isolated from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Phormidium

      laminosum with Glycinebetaine and Glycerol. Biochim Biophys Acta


Tang XS, Diner BA (1994). Biochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of

      a New Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Core Complex from the

      Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Biochemistry 33:4594-4603.

Taoka S, Jursinic PA, Seibert M (1993). Slow Oxygen Release on the First Two

      Flashes in Chemically Stressed Photosystem II Membrane Fragments Results

      from Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation. Photosynth Res 38:425-431.

Tiwari S, Mohanty P (1993). Cobalt Chloride Induced Stimulation of

      Photosystem II Electron Transport in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 Cells.

      Photosynth Res 38:463-469.

Vermaas W, Vass I, Eggers B, Styring S (1994). Mutation of a Putative Ligand

      to the Non-Heme Iron in Photosystem II - Implications for QA Reactivity,

      Electron Transfer, and Herbicide Binding. BBA-Bioenergetics


Vermaas WFJ, Styring S, Schroder WP, Andersson B (1993). Photosynthetic Water

      Oxidation - The Protein Framework. Photosynth Res 38:249-263.

Zhang ZH, Mayes SR, Vass I, Nagy L, Barber J (1993). Characterization of the

      psbK Locus of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 in Terms of Photosystem II

      Function. Photosynth Res 38:369-377.

               ****** PHYCOBILISOMES and CAROTENOIDS ******

Bekasova OD (1993). Biochemistry of Phycobilisomes [Russ.]. Biofizika


Bhalerao RP, Gustafsson P (1994). Factors Influencing the Phycobilisome Rod

      Composition of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942 - Effects

      of Reduced Phycocyanin Content, Lack of Rod-Linkers, and over-Expression

      of the Rod-Terminating Linker. Physiol Plant 90:187-197.

Collier JL, Grossman AR (1994). A Small Polypeptide Triggers Complete

      Degradation of Light-Harvesting Phycobiliproteins in Nutrient-Deprived

      Cyanobacteria. EMBO J 13:1039-1047.

Ducret A, Sidler W, Frank G, Zuber H (1994). The Complete Amino Acid Sequence

      of R-Phycocyanin-I alpha and beta Subunits from the Red Alga

      Porphyridium Cruentum -Structural and Phylogenetic Relationships of the

      Phycocyanins Within the Phycobiliprotein Families. Eur J Biochem


MacColl R, Williams EC, Eisele LE, McNaughton P (1994). Chromophore topography

      and exciton splitting in phycocyanin 645. Biochemistry 33:6418-6423.

Mullineaux CW (1994). Excitation Energy Transfer from Phycobilisomes to

      Photosystem I in a Cyanobacterial Mutant Lacking Photosystem II.

      BBA-Bioenergetics 1184:71-77.

Newman J, Mann NH, Carr NG (1994). Organization and Transcription of the

      Class I Phycoerythrin Genes of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

      sp WH7803. Plant Mol Biol 24:679-683.

Parker W, Goebel P, Ross CR, Song PS, Stezowski JJ (1994). Molecular Modeling

      of Phytochrome Using Constitutive C-Phycocyanin from Fremyella

      diplosiphon as a Putative Structural Template. Bioconjugate Chemistry


Redecker D, Wehrmeyer W, Reuter W (1993). Core Substructure of the

      Hemiellipsoidal Phycobilisome from the Red Alga Porphyridium Cruentum.

      Eur J Cell Biol 62:442-450.

Reuter W, Westermann M, Brass S, Ernst A, Boger P, Wehrmeyer W (1994).

      Structure, Composition, and Assembly of Paracrystalline

      Phycobiliproteins in Synechocystis sp Strain BO 8402 and of

      Phycobilisomes in the Derivative Strain BO 9201. J Bacteriol


Biswal B, Smith AJ, Rogers LJ (1994). Changes in Carotenoids But Not in D1

      Protein in Response to Nitrogen Depletion and Recovery in a

      Cyanobacterium. FEMS Microbiol Lett 116:341-347.

Jones MC, Jenkins JM, Smith AG, Howe CJ (1994). Cloning and Characterisation

      of Genes for Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis from the Cyanobacterium Anacystis

      nidulans R2. Plant Mol Biol 24:435-448.

Linden H, Misawa N, Saito T, Sandmann G (1994). A Novel Carotenoid

      Biosynthesis Gene Coding for zeta-Carotene Desaturase - Functional

      Expression, Sequence and Phylogenetic Origin. Plant Mol Biol 24:369-379.

Martinez-Ferez I, Vioque A, Sandmann G (1994). Mutagenesis of an Amino Acid

      Responsible in Phytoene Desaturase from Synechocystis for Binding of the

      Bleaching Herbicide Norflurazon. Pestic Biochem Physiol 48:185-190.

Windhovel U, Geiges B, Sandmann G, Boger P (1994). Expression of Erwinia

      uredovora Phytoene Desaturase in Synechococcus PCC 7942 Leading to

      Resistance Against a Bleaching Herbicide. Plant Physiol 104:119-125.

            ****** ELECTRON TRANSPORT and BIOENERGETICS ******

Alge D, Schmetterer G, Peschek GA (1994). The Gene Encoding Cytochrome c

      Oxidase Subunit I from Synechocystis PCC6803. Gene 138:127-132.

Kang C, Chitnis PR, Smith S, Krogmann DW (1994). Cloning and sequence analysis

      of the gene encoding the low potential cytochrome c of Synechocystis

      PCC 6803. FEBS Lett 344:5-9.

Manasse RS, Bendall DS (1993). Characteristics of Cyclic Electron Transport

      in the Cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum. Biochim Biophys Acta


Martens N, Hall EAH (1994). Diaminodurene as a Mediator of a Photocurrent

      Using Intact Cells of Cyanobacteria. Photochem Photobiol 59:91-98.

Sone N, Tano H, Ishizuka M (1994). The genes in the thermophilic

      cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus encoding cytochrome c oxidase.

      BBA-Bioenergetics 1185:255 (correction of 1183:130).

Chae YK, Abildgaard F, Mooberry ES, Markley JL (1994). Multinuclear,

      Multidimensional NMR Studies of Anabaena 7120 Heterocyst Ferredoxin -

      Sequence-Specific Resonance Assignments and Secondary Structure of the

      Oxidized Form in Solution. Biochemistry 33:3287-3295.

Cheng H, Xia B, Reed GH, Markley JL (1994). Optical, EPR, and H-1 NMR

      Spectroscopy of Serine-Ligated [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxins Produced by

      Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Cysteine Residues in Recombinant Anabaena

      7120 Vegetative Ferredoxins. Biochemistry 33:3155-3164.

Ghassemian M, Wong B, Ferreira F, Markley JL, Straus NA (1994). Cloning,

      sequencing and transcriptional studies of the genes for cytochrome c555

      and plastocyanin from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Microbiology-Uk


Gisselmann G, Klausmeier P, Schwenn JD (1993). The Ferredoxin - Sulphite

      Reductase Gene from Synechococcus PCC 7942. Biochim Biophys Acta


Hervas M, Ortega JM, Navarro JA, Delarosa MA, Bottin H (1994). Laser Flash

      Kinetic Analysis of Synechocystis PCC 6803 Cytochrome c6 and

      Plastocyanin Oxidation by Photosystem I. BBA-Bioenergetics 1184:235-241.

Ho KK, Tan S (1994). Use of Adsorption Chromatography on Sephacryl S-500 for

      Improved Separation of Isoforms of Soluble Photosynthetic Catalysts from

      Cyanobacteria. J Liq Chromatogr 17:833-845.

Holden HM, Jacobson BL, Hurley JK, Tollin G, Oh BH, Skjeldal L, Chae YK, Cheng

      H, Xia B, Markley J (1994). Structure-Function Studies of [2Fe-2S]

      Ferredoxins. J Bioenerg Biomembrane 26:67-88.

Jelesarov I, Depascalis AR, Koppenol WH, Hirasawa M, Knaff DB, Bosshard H

      (1993). Ferredoxin Binding Site on Ferredoxin:NADP(+) Reductase -

      Differential Chemical Modification of Free and Ferredoxin-Bound Enzyme.

      Eur J Biochem 216:57-66.

Karplus PA, Bruns CM (1994). Structure-Function Relations for Ferredoxin

      Reductase. J Bioenerg Biomembrane 26:89-99.

Lelong C, Setif P, Lagoutte B, Bottin H (1994). Identification of the Amino

      Acids Involved in the Functional Interaction Between Photosystem I and

      Ferredoxin from Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 by Chemical Cross-Linking. J

      Biol Chem 269:10034-10039.

Schrautemeier B, Cassing A, Bohme H (1994). Characterization of the Genome

      Region Encoding an Fdxh-Type Ferredoxin and a New 2[4Fe-4S] Ferredoxin

      from the Nonheterocystous, Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Plectonema

      boryanum PCC 73110. J Bacteriol 176:1037-1046.

Zhang LL, Pakrasi HB, Whitmarsh J (1994). Photoautotrophic Growth of the

      Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 in the Absence of Cytochrome

      c553 and Plastocyanin. J Biol Chem 269:5036-5042.

Dubinin AV, Gerasimenko LM (1993). Dark Anaerobic Metabolism of Halophilic

      Cyanobacterium Microcoleus chtonoplastes. Microbiology-Engl Tr


Lill H, Steinemann D, Nelson N (1994). Mutagenesis of the B'-Subunit of

      Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 ATP-Synthase. BBA-Bioenergetics 1184:284-290.

Neisser A, Fromwald S, Schmatzberger A, Peschek GA (1994). Immunological and

      Functional Localization of Both F-Type and P-Type ATPases in

      Cyanobacterial Plasma Membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:884-892.

Vanwalraven HS, Lutter R, Walker JE (1993). Organization and Sequences of

      Genes for the Subunits of ATP Synthase in the Thermophilic

      Cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6716. Biochem J 294:239-251.

Fukuda H, Sakai M, Nagahama K, Fujii T, Matsuoka M, Inoue Y, Ogawa T (1994).

      Heterologous Expression of the Gene for the Ethylene-Forming Enzyme from

      Pseudomonas syringae in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus. Biotechnol

      Lett 16:1-6.

                ****** LABORATORY AND GENETIC TOOLS ******

Prabaharan D, Sumathi M, Subramanian G (1994). Ability to Use Ampicillin as

      a Nitrogen Source by the Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum

      BDU 30501. Curr Microbiol 28:315-320.

Sethu KMP, Prabha TN, Venkataraman LV (1994). Preparation of protoplasts from

      the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis and a novel viability assay. Lett

      Appl Microbiol 18:241-244.

Shestopalov VI, Nashchokina OO, Shestakov SV, Yankovskii NK (1994).

      Construction of the Genomic Library of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis

      sp. PCC 6803 in a Cosmid Vector. Genetika 30:452-455.

Subramanian G, Uma L, Thajuddin N, Prabaharan D, Sekar S, Sundararaman M,

      Sophia Rajini V (1994). Manual of Techniques in Cyanobacterial Research.

      Bharathidasan University.

Thacker SP, Kothari RM, Ramamurthy V (1994). Obtaining Axenic Cultures of

      Filamentous Cyanobacterium Spirulina. Biotechniques 16:216-217.

Mermet-Bouvier P, Chauvat F (1994). A Conditional Expression Vector for the

      Cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp Strains PCC 6803 and PCC 6714 or

      Synechococcus sp Strains PCC 7942 and PCC 6301. Curr Microbiol


Moser DP, Zarka D, Kallas T (1993). Characterization of a Restriction Barrier

      and Electrotransformation of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7121. Arch

      Microbiol 160:229-237.

Sode K, Tatara M, Hatano N, Matsunaga T (1994). Foreign Gene Expression in

      Marine Cyanobacteria Under Pseudo-Continuous Culture. J Biotechnol


Kurokawa M, Tominaga H, Ashida H, Sawa Y, Ochiai H (1994). Replication of

      filamentous cyanobacterial plasmids, pPF1 from Phormidium foveolarum and

      pPB1 from Plectonema boryanum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58:796-797.

Muro-Pastor AM, Kuritz T, Flores E, Herrero A, Wolk CP (1994). Transfer of a

      Genetic Marker from a Megaplasmid of Anabaena sp Strain PCC 7120 to a

      Megaplasmid of a Different Anabaena Strain. J Bacteriol 176:1093-1098.

Schaefer MR, Chiang GG, Cobley JG, Grossman AR (1993). Plasmids from Two

      Morphologically Distinct Cyanobacterial Strains Share a Novel

      Replication Origin. J Bacteriol 175:5701-5705.

Yang XY, McFadden BA (1994). The Complete DNA Sequence and Replication

      Analysis of the Plasmid pCB2.4 from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis

      PCC 6803. Plasmid 31:131-137.

             ****** METABOLISM OF DNA, RNA, and PROTEIN ******

Houmard J (1994). Gene transcription in filamtentous cyanobacteria. Microbiol


Kim ST, Sancar A, Essenmacher C, Babcock GT (1993). Time-Resolved EPR Studies

      with DNA Photolyase - Excited-State FADH(0) Abstracts an Electron from

      Trp306 to Generate FADH(-), the Catalytically Active Form of the

      Cofactor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8023-8027.

Mulligan ME, Jackman DM, Murphy ST (1994). Heterocyst-Forming Filamentous

      Cyanobacteria Encode Proteins That Resemble Eukaryotic RNA-Binding

      Proteins of the RNP Family. J Mol Biol 235:1162-1170.

Pinevich A, Grigoryeva I (1994). Epifluorescence Microscopy of Anabaena sp -

      Nucleoid Configurations and Evidence for Inclusion-Associated DNA.

      Experientia 50:44-48.

Sancar A (1994). Structure and Function of DNA Photolyase. Biochemistry


Sugita M, Sugiura M (1994). The Existence of Eukaryotic Ribonucleoprotein

      Consensus Sequence-Type RNA-Binding Proteins in a Prokaryote,

      Synechococcus 6301. Nucleic Acids Res 22:25-31.

Ueno T, Ito H, Kotani H, Kimizuka F, Nakajima K (1993). Cloning and Expression

      of the NspV Restriction-Modification Genes of Nostoc-sp. Strain

      PCC 7524. Nucleic Acids Res 21:3899.

Zaug AJ, McEvoy MM, Cech TR (1993). Self-Splicing of the Group-I Intron from

      Anabaena Pre-Transfer-RNA - Requirement for Base-Pairing of the Exons

      in the Anticodon Stem. Biochemistry 32:7946-7953.

Barbrook AC, Packer JCL, Howe CJ (1993). Components of the Protein

      Translocation Machinery in the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Phormidium

      laminosum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 197:874-877.

Mackle MM, Zilinskas BA (1994). Role of Signal Peptides in Targeting of

      Proteins in Cyanobacteria. J Bacteriol 176:1857-1864.

Nakai M, Nohara T, Sugita D, Endo T (1994). Identification and

      Characterization of the SecA Protein Homologue in the Cyanobacterium

      Synechococcus PCC 7942. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:844-851.

Salvi S, Trinei M, Lanfaloni L, Pon CL (1994). Cloning and Characterization

      of the Gene Encoding an Esterase from Spirulina platensis. Mol Gen Genet


                  ****** APPLIED CYANOBACTERIOLOGY ******

Markov SA, Lichtl R, Rao KK, Hall DO (1993). A hollow fibre photobioreactor

      for continuous production of hydrogen by immobilized cyanobacteria under

      partial vacuum. Int J Hydrogen Energy 18:901-906.

Boussiba S (1993). Production of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena

      siamensis in a closed tubular reactor for rice farming. Microb Releases


Spiller H, Stallings W, Woods T, Gunasekaran M (1993). Requirement for Direct

      Association of Ammonia-Excreting Anabaena variabilis Mutant (SA-1) with

      Roots for Maximal Growth and Yield of Wheat. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol


Pal D, Amla DV (1992). Commercial fertilizer N:P:K an alternative nitrogen

      source for cultivation of Spirulina platensis in sewage. Cryptogam Algol


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AUSTRALIA     Steve Delaney            Department of Biotechnology,

 /NEW ZEALAND                          University of New South Wales, P.O.

                                       Box 1, Kensington, New South Wales

                                       AUSTRALIA 2033

AUSTRIA       Georg Schmetterer        Institut fur Physikalische Chemie,

                                       Wahringerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien

                                       (EMail) A8422dad@Awiuni11

CANADA        Neil Strauss             Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Toronto, Toronto, Ontario  M5S 1A1.

                                       (E-mail) StrausNA@gpu.utcs.UToronto.Ca

P.R.CHINA     Chao-Tsi Tseng           Centre of Marine Sciences, Department 

                                       of Biology, Nanjing University,


CZECHOSLOV.   Jiri Komarek             Institute of Botany, CAS Dept. of

                                       Hydrobotany, Dukelske 145, CS-37982


FRANCE        Nicole Tandeau de Marsac Physiologie Microbienne, Institut

                                       Pasteur, 29 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724

                                       Paris Cedex 15. 

                                       (EMail) NTMarsac@Pasteur.Fr

GERMANY       Wolfgang Lockau          Biochemie der Pflanzen, Fachbereich 

                                       Biologie, Humboldt-Universit„t,

                                       Invalidenstr. 42, 10 115 Berlin

INDIA         Joe Thomas               Biotechnology Division, SPIC Science

                                       Foundation, 110 Mount Road, Madras

                                       600 032

ISRAEL        Elisha Tel-Or            Dept. of Agricultural Botany, The

                                       Hebrew University, Rehovot 76100

                                       (Tel) 08-481262

ITALY         Mario Tredici            Departimento di Scienze e Tecnologie

                                       Alimentari e Microbiologiche.

                                       Universita degli Studi di Firenze,

                                       P.le. delle Cascine 27 51044 Firenze.

                                       (Tel) 055-352051

                                       (E-mail) D47000@Ifiidg.Fi.Cnr.It

NETHERLANDS   Luuc Mur                 Laboratorium voor Microbiologie,

                                       Universiteit voor Amsterdam, Nieuwe

                                       Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam

SCANDANAVIA   Olav Skulberg            Norwegian Institute for Water

                                       Research, P.O.box 69 Korsvall, N-0808

                                       Oslo 8 NORWAY

U.K.          Tony Walsby              Dept. of Botany, University of

                                       Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG

ANYWHERE ELSE Jeff Elhai               Dept. of Biological Sciences, Florida

                                       International University, University

                                       Park Campus, Miami FL 33199 USA. 

                                       (Tel) 305-348-3584, (Fax) 305-348-1986

                                       (E-mail) Cyano@Servax.Bitnet

                                            or  Cyano@Servax.Fiu.Edu