Aquatic Biology Information Resources on the Internet 

Version 2  (revised quarterly; last revision 14 July 1994)

Barry N. Brown, Science Librarian & Access Services Coordinator, 
Mansfield Library, University of Montana (

Initially prepared (5/17/94) for the North American Benthological Society, 
Computer Information Committee. Corrections, additions, suggestions, 
comments, questions, etc. are welcomed! Descriptive Keywords: aquatic, 
freshwater, marine, limnology, benthos, biology, ecology. Intended 
audience: aquatic (freshwater & marine) biologists, botanists,
and ecologists (and everyone else researching those fields).

Table of Contents:
I)    Taxonomy of Information Resources Available on the Internet
II)   Selected Internet Bibliography
III)  Gopher 
IV)   World Wide Web
V)    WAIS
VI)   Library Catalogs
VII)  Databases and Special Collections
VIII) Specimen Collections
IX)   Electronic Journals and Newsletters
X)    Publicly Accessible Files
XI)   Computer Conferences, Newsgroups, Listservs, and Mailing Lists

I) Taxonomy of Information Resources Available on the Internet

a) Computer Mediated Communication (e-mail, talk, internet relay chat)
b) Directory Services: White Pages, etc.
c) Computer Conferences, Newsgroups, Listservs, and Mailing Lists 
d) Electronic Books & Journals & Newspapers
e) Library Catalogs and Databases 
f) Commercial Databases (e.g. Dialog, STN, etc.)
g) Publicly Accessible Files (textual, numeric, image, software)
h) Specimen Collections
i) BBSs, Freenets, CWISs
j) Information Servers: Gopher, WAIS, World Wide Web
k) Super Computers
l) Simulation Environments (e.g. MUDs, MOOs, MUSEs, MUSHs, etc.)

II) Selected Internet Bibliography

Access Options (i.e. how to get connected):
- Connecting to the Internet: a Buyer's Guide.  Estrada, Susan.  1993.  
O'Reilly & Associates.
- Internet Access Providers: an International Resource Directory.  
Notess, Greg.  1994.  Meckler.
- The Public Dialup Internet Access List (PDIAL).  Available on the 
internet by sending email to: "" with the 
message: "send pdial".
- Usenet newsgroup. Available on the Internet:  alt.internet.access.wanted

Biology Guides:
- A Biologist's Guide to Internet Resources.  Smith, Una R.  Updated 
regularly. Available on the Internet via gopher at:  
/Worlds of Sunsite by Subject/Ecology & Evolution/Biologist's Guide.
- Information by Subject Area (Rice University). Available on the Internet 
via gopher at:  /Information by Subject Area/Biology (also 
Environment & Ecology, and Oceanography).

General Reference Guides:
- Guides (NCSU). Many internet and subject guides are available, at NCSU's 
Library Without Walls, via gopher at:  /Reference 
- The Internet: Complete Reference.  Hahn, Harley and Rick Stout.  1994.  
Osborne McGraw-Hill.
- The Internet Passport: NorthWestNet's Guide to the World Online.  Kochmer, 
Jonathan and NorthWestNet.  1993 (1994 edition due soon).  NorthWestNet 
- The Internet Unleashed.  1994.  Sams Publishing.
- The Whole Internet: User's Guide and Catalog.  Krol, Ed.  2nd Edition. 1994. 
O'Reilly & Associates. 

System Specific Guides:
- The Internet Starter Kit for Macintosh.  Engst, Adam.  1993.  Hayden Books
- The PC Internet Tour Guide.  Fraase, Michael.  1994.  Ventana Press
- Hands-on Internet: A Beginning Guide for PC Users.  Sachs, David and 
Henry Stair.  1994.  Prentice Hall

III) Gopher

Gopher is a hierarchical browsing program developed at the University of 
Minnesota (home of the "Golden Gophers"), to help people navigate their way 
through various Internet resources. By using a gopher the user does not need to 
use commands (e.g. telnet, ftp) or know specific addresses for resources. It is 
a tremendously popular program and there are now thousands of Gopher servers 
around the world including many in Europe, the Pacific Rim, and Latin America.

If you have a local gopher, or a gopher client, than you can directly access 
other gophers, if you know their address, by using gopher as a command, e.g. 
"gopher". Most gophers have connections to all other 
gophers. If you do not have access to a local gopher use a publicly 
accessible gopher such as the Univ. of Minnesota Gopher 
(telnet or the University of California, Santa 
Cruz Gopher (telnet   login: infoslug) to access all 
other gophers (each gopher typically has a menu listing for "Other Gophers"). 
To search for particular resources on gophers around the world - use a 
resource known as "Veronica" (there is also an adaptation of it known as 
"BOING" - Bio-Oriented Internet Gopher). To see a list of subject oriented 
gophers access "Gopher Jewels" available via gopher at:  
/Other Gophers and..../Gopher Jewels.  

Aquanaut - Scuba Diving (
Aquanic - Aquaculture Network Information Center (
Australian National University, Bioinformatics (
Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (
Bedford Institute of Oceanography (
Biodiversity and Biological Collections at Harvard (
Ciesin, Global Ecology and the Environment (
Deep-Sea and Hydrothermal Vent Info. (  /acad/biol/deep...)
EcoGopher at U. VA (
Ecological Data Exchange at Yale (
Econet (  /environment/water; also /environment/forests)
Entomology Gopher - Australia (
Entomology Gopher - Iowa State Univ. (
Entomology Gopher - Univ. of Deleware (
Envirogopher (
Environmental Resources Info. Network (
Forestry Gopher - Univ. of Minn. (
Great Lakes Info. Network (
Harvard Gray Herbarium Index of New World Plants (
IUBio Biology Archive, Indiana University (
Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network (
Marine Biological Lab - Woods Hole (
National Oceanographic Data Center - NODC (
National Science Foundation Gopher, database of current awards (
NABS Biblio.& Info. (  /Notre Dame Acad.&Res. Data/Aq.Biol/NABS)
NEODAT Fish Biodiversity Gopher (
NOAA - Environmental Information (
NOAA - Great Lakes Env. Res. Lab (
NODC - National Oceanographic Data Center (
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (
Smithsonian Institution's - Natural History Gopher (
UNC Sunsite, Collection of ecology and evolution materials (
Universities Water Information Network (
Univ. of California, Berkeley, Museum of Paleontology (
Univ. of California, InfoSlug, lots of biology,ecology,etc. (
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara - Marine Biology Library (
USGS - Atlantic Marine Geology (
Virginia Institute of Marine Science (
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (

IV) World Wide Web (WWW)

World Wide Web (WWW) is another tool for navigating the Internet. It is based 
on "hypertext" and was developed at CERN, the European Particle Physics 
Laboratory in Switzerland. Like gopher, it has been widely adopted. To connect 
to a public WWW, telnet to: and login as: "www". 

Currently, there are a variety of popular browser programs for WWW (e.g. 
Mosaic, Cello). These programs provide multimedia capabilities but require a 
"direct" connection or a dialup connection with SLIP or PPP. Consult one of the 
general internet reference guides for more information. To connect to a public 
full screen browser - Lynx (for vt100 emulation) which does not require a 
direct connection or a SLIP/PPP connection, telnet to: and 
login as: "kufacts" (then go to the "Reference Shelf"). Or telnet to: and login as: "lynx".

To use a public www client that allows you to directly input one of the 
addresses (i.e. URL, e.g. "") below, telnet to:  and select: Internet Tools/Worldwide Web Anywhere. 

Aquanaut - scuba diving related information
Australian Environmental Resources Information Network
Australian National University Biodiversity
CSU Stanislaus - Biology Department 
Colorado State University - Entomology
CYAMUS - regional group of IAMSLIC = Marine Libraries
Earth Observing System Project
Iowa State Univ. - Entomology
Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Deacon Laboratory, Wormley
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University
NATO SACLANT - Undersea Research Centre
Nauticus - National Maritime Center
NCDC - US National Climatic Data Center
NGDC - US National Geophysical Data Center
NMFS - US National Marine Fisheries Service
NOAA - US National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
   (http: //
NOAA - Environmental Info Services
NODC - US National Oceanographic Data Center
Oceanic, Ocean Information Center
The Oceanography Society's Distributed Ocean Data System project
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library
SeaWIFS Project
Unidata Program
University of Hawaii, School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology
US Fish & Wildlife Service - Division of Law Enforcement
US Fish & Wildlife Service - Division of Refuges
USGS Global Change and Climate History Program
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution   


Wide Area Information Server (WAIS pronounced "wayz") is a powerful search 
tool that is used to keyword search a particular information resource (which 
can range from a newsgroup archive to a text or image database). There are over 
600 different individual WAIS sources or databases with more added each month. 
WAIS is often accessed through a gopher. The following "sources" are from a 
public WAIS server accessible by:  telnet,   login: swais. Or 
you can access these sources by gopher (  /Surf the 
Net.../Search WAIS...).

- Biology Journal Contents, #239
- Biosci (Usenet Bionet Newsgroups), #240 
- Coastal, #271
- DOE Climate Data, #76
- Environment Newsgroups, #350
- Global Change Data Directory, #83
- Invertebrate Paleontology Database, #106
- NOAA Environmental Services, #127
- NOAA National Environmental Referral Service, #128
- The Scientist, #562
- Smithsonian Pictures, #530
- USDA CRIS (Current Research Information Service), #575
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (Region 9), #197
- Water Quality Database, #590

VI) Library Catalogs 

There are over 1,000 library catalogs in more than 60 countries available on 
the Internet. Many of these catalogs also have special databases. Catalogs of 
particular interest to aquatic biologists include the EPA Library, the Univ. of 
California Library System (Melvyl) with over 10 million records, Harvard, Yale, 
the Library of Congress, Univ. of Michigan, Univ. of Washington, Illinet (the 
union catalog for Illinois) etc. Generally those institutions with strong 
programs in a discipline have good library collections in those areas. 
Other criteria for selecting a library catalog to search might include: 
geographical location, size of the collection, and consulting a reference 
guide (e.g. "Subject Collections"). 

Most catalogs provide a variety of search options such as browsing an exact 
title, author or subject heading, or using keywords to search those indexes. 
Productive words to input for a "subject browse" include: aquatic (e.g. 
aquatic biology, aquatic botany, aquatic ecology, aquatic invertebrates, etc.),
freshwater, marine, stream, lake, limnology, etc. 

Catalogs can be accessed by "telnet" if the address is known or through a 
gopher. Most gophers have a menu listing for "Library Catalogs" which allows 
geographical browsing or keyword name searching for a particular catalog. 
Another way to access library catalogs is through "Hytelnet" available 
via telnet at:  login: "hytelnet". Hytelnet also provides 
a comprehensive directory of Freenets, CWISs, BBSs, and Databases.

VII) Databases & Special Collections

There are a variety of databases available through telnet or a gopher or 

- The Archie Carr Sea Turtle Bibliographic Database. It consists of all 
aspects of sea turtle biology. Log on as LUIS.  telnet  

- Aquaculture Information Center at the National Agricultural Library. 
Reference questions answered via email. Send messages to:

- AquaNIC - Aquaculture Network Information Center. telnet  (login: cwis)

- Bibliography of Attractants of Blood-Feeding Arthropods. Available via 
gopher at:

- CARL Uncover - over 14,000 journals, with 3 million citations, indexed for 
the last 5 years, accessed by keyword (W) or by table of contents (B). Document 
delivery also available. telnet

- Center for the Great Lakes Information Service. Available via the Cicnet 
gopher at: 

- Crayfish Bibliography. Available via gopher at:  
/Invert. Zool. at the Smith. /Crustaceans /Crayfish

- Entomology Database, University of Colorado. Available via gopher at:  /Online Library Catalogs..... /Univ. of CO. Ent. Dat.

- Fisheries Technical Reports, British Columbia. Available via gopher
at:  /Environ. & Sci. Info /Biodiv. Info. /Fish,
Wildlife and Endang... /BC Environ. Fish. Tech. Reports

- Galveston Bay Bibliography. Available via telnet at:  
login: "GBAY".

- Marine and Aquatic Sciences Serials Lists. Through the Univ. of Santa Cruz 
InfoSlug Gopher at:  /Library /Other Libraries.

- Marine Organism Images. Through the CSU Stanislaus WWW:    (/Biology Dept./Delta Project).

- New England Algae Database (freshwater and marine). Available via 
gopher at:  /MBL Databases/Algae.

- North American Benthological Society (NABS), Information & Bibliography. 
The bibliography is available for keyword searching, and there are several 
other text files available via gopher at:  /Notre Dame Acad. & 
Res. Data/Aquatic Biology/NABS.

- NOAA National Environmental Referral Service. Through the Univ. of Santa 
Cruz InfoSlug Gopher at:  /Researcher /Sci. & Eng. /Biol. & 
Life Sci. /Worldwide Biol. Gopher Serv. /Env. Sci.

- Nudibranch Bibliography. Available via gopher at:  
/Researchers/Science/Earth & Marine.

- Ocean Network Information Center. telnet (login: info)

- Periphyton Images. Available via gopher at:  /Info. 
Organized by Coll. & Dept./Biology/Algae.

- Sea Grant documents. Documents are retrieved via a mail program. To 
request information - send email to, leave the 
subject blank and in the body of the message type the desired command:
"send ext seagrant abstracts help"   List of Sea Grant abstracts topics
"send ext seagrant index"            List of Sea Grant information
"send guide"                         Information on using the Almanac program

- University of Idaho - Aquaculture Databases. telnet 
(login: fish)

- U.S. National Fungus Collection. telnet (access with 
"login user" and "user")

- Water Quality Data Directory. Through the Univ. of Santa Cruz InfoSlug 
Gopher at:  /Researcher /Sci. & Eng. /Biol. & Life 
Sci./Worldwide Biol. Gopher Serv. /Env. Sci.

VIII) Specimen Collections

Museum and laboratory specimen collections are often little used data 
repositories that contain a wealth of potential information. Automation 
of these collections and global access through the Internet can greatly 
assist researchers. There are currently over 2 million plant and animal 
specimens online from a variety of institutions.

The following are available via gopher at:  /Museum, 
Herbarium & Arboretum Collection Catalogs.
- California Academy Invertebrate Zoology & Geology Type Catalog
- Cornell Fish Collection
- Farlow Herbarium Diatom Catalog
- Harvard MCZ (Museum of Comparative Zoology) Entomology Type Catalog
- Harvard MCZ (Museum of Comparative Zoology) Fish Type Catalog
- Texas Natural History Collection, Fishes
- University of Colorado Entomology Database

The following is available via gopher at:
- Neotropical Database of Fish Biodiversity

IX) Electronic Journals and Newsletters

There are several hundred e-journals and e-newsletters currently available on 
the Internet. Some are peer reviewed and some are fee based, but most are 
neither. They can be accessed by sending a subscription request via email to 
the editor, or through gophers. A main archive is at the Cicnet gopher 

* Aquatic Conservation Notes
A publication of the Aquatic Conservation Network - to receive a copy email 
Rob Huntley (

* Aquatic Survival
A newsletter of the Aquatic Conservation Network - to receive a copy email Rob 
Huntley (

* Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) Newsletter, Australia.
Available via gopher and anonymous ftp from

* Climate/Ecosystem Dynamics (CED).  
E-mail subscriptions are available from Daniel Pomme 
(, available via gopher at:

* Conservation Ecology
Available via gopher at: 

* Directory of Phycologists. 
To receive this directory email a request to MARK@IMB.LAN.NRC.CA.

*Env-Link (Student EnviroLink)
Available via gopher at:

* Florida Entomological Society's Electronic Publication Project
Available via gopher at:  /florida entomologist.

* LTER Data Management Bulletin (DATABITS).  
Available via gopher at:

* The Scientist 
Available via anonymous ftp on, courtesy of the Institute for 
Scientific Information and the NSF Network Service Center.

* STARNET Echinoderm Newsletter.
E-mail subscriptions are available from Win Hide (

* Today's Aquarist 
The leading publication for professionals at public aquariums - to receive a 
copy of this publication email Don S. Johnson (

X) Publicly Accessible Files (text, data, software, images, sound)

There are a plethora of publicly available files of all types on the Internet. 
These files are obtainable through "ftp" (with "anonymous" login) and are 
indexed and searchable by a resource known as "Archie". To identify a general 
source for biological files consult "A Biologist's Guide to Internet 
Resources". For help with using the ftp command or searching Archie - consult a 
general Internet guide. Many files are now also available through Gopher and 
found with Veronica.

Bibliographic research guides - includes: freshwater ecology and dolphins.  

Environment of the seas.  (/pub/MAC/HYPERCARD/Museum)

Programs and data by and for marine scientists.  (/pub)

Tide Program (calculates tides for all of the coastal U.S.) (/dfo/habitat/dan)

XI) Computer Conferences, Newsgroups, Listservs, Mailing Lists

There are thousands of conferences on a variety of topics ranging from the 
scholarly to the personal. Topics or questions can be posted for discussion or 
answers. Bitnet and most Internet conferences are known as "Listservs" (based 
on the software used to manage them) and can be automatically subscribed to by 
sending a specific command ("subscribe listname yourname" - substitute the 
conference name and your name and omit "") to the listserv address (e.g. for 
the conference "" you would mail the commands to: Some internet conferences require subscription 
requests be directed to individual moderators via email. Usenet conferences are 
generally known as "Newsgroups". Instead of subscribing to them, they are read 
with "newsreaders" or through your local Gopher. Consult general Internet 
Guides or your computing center for further assistance (especially for 
information about "replying to" or "posting new" messages).

A "Directory of Scholarly Electronic Conferences" is available via gopher at:  /NCSU's Lib. Without Walls/Ref. Desk/Guides/Dir. of Schol. 
El. Conf. Also browse the "Biologist's Guide to the Internet" available via 
gopher at:  /Worlds of sunsite by subject/Ecology & 
Evol./Biologist's Guide. 

Internet Listservs           aquaculture & aquariums
aquifer@ibacsata.bitnet         pollution and groundwater recharge            entomological biological control       biodiversity networks    biosphere, ecology, discussion list            bmdp software users          brine shrimp discussion list           entomology for teachers and bug enthusiasts         coastal managment and resources  conservation biology list            discussion on biological conservation             crustacean biology     sea turtle biology and conservation list    toxic cyanobacteria            deep sea and vent news  research on the diatom algae           ecological society of america              list for ecosystem theory and modeling         european cetacean society news      journal of statistics education list         entomology discussion list       environmental studies discussion list         ethology         socioeconomics & anthro. of fisheries      marine science and children/youth  hyperbaric & diving medicine list                marine science library info.service.           international arctic project wildlife             marine mammal research and cons.         marine studies/shipboard education       middle east water (including limnology)         fungus and root interaction           molluscan taxonomy              applied tech. - freshwater, marine           ocean drilling program open discussion       organization for tropical studies         pollination and palynology list          discussion of stats and programming            sas discussion (peered)       sas public access consortium             scuba and skin diving          spssx discussion (peered)            statistical consulting       thermal physiology         water science network      water quality

Internet Conferences with special subscription instructions 

*      -entomology (contact Mark O'Brien:
* env.seashepherd (reposted)    - Sea Sheperd Conservation Society (send 
a subscription request containing your full name, real address and e-mail 
address to Nick Voth:
*  -fish and fisheries ecology (send email to: with the message "subscribe fish-ecology")
*     -fisheries management (send email to: with the message "subscribe fisheries")
*  -killifish, Cyprinodontidae (send email to:
*           -marine facilities & aquaria, etc. (send 
email to: with the message "subscribe mar-facil") 
*      -neotropical fish (send email to: with the message "sub nia-net")
*       -fish and wildlife biology (send email to:

Sea Grant "Mailing List" Conferences:
To generate a list of discussion groups and procedures for how to 
subscribe send email to: with the message "send 
mail-catalog". To subscribe to any of the following groups send email to with the message "subscribe mailing-list" (where 
"mailing list" is the name of the desired list). To send mail to all 
members of a particular group, address your message to the 
appropriate address listed below.             Oregon Sea Grant staff, leader, director             Oregon Sea Grant agents and prog. leader           All Sea Grant MAS leaders          All Sea Grant Communicators             Oregon's Ocean Policy Advisory Council              Sea Grant Coastal Rec. and Tourism staff           Oregon Global Issues Mailing Group         Sea Grant National Global Initiative          MAS Assembly Executive Committee

Usenet Newsgroups

bionet.biology.computational     comp. and math applications in biology
bionet.biology.tropical          tropical biology and ecology                      job opportunities in biology
bionet.journals.contents         biological journals table of contents
bionet.metabolic.-reg            metabolic reg. and thermodynamics
bionet.photosynthesis            photosynthesis research
bionet.population-bio            population biology
bionet.sci-resources             information about funding agencies                  software for biology
bit.listserv.biosph-l            biosphere, ecology, discussion list
bit.listserv.ethology            ethology                  ecological research (ESA)